EJE, vol. 113 (2016)

To fly or not to fly: Factors influencing the flight capacity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Stephen VENN

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 587-600, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.079

This review considers factors affecting the flight capacity of carabid beetles and the implications of flight for carabids. Studies from the Dutch polders in particular show that young populations of carabids consist predominantly of macropterous species and macropterous individuals of wing-dimorphic species. Also populations of wing-dimorphic carabid species at the periphery of their geographical range contain high proportions of macropterous individuals. However, studies from Baltic archipelagos show that older populations of even highly isolated island habitats contain considerable proportions of brachypterous species and individuals. This suggests...

Plant volatiles challenge inhibition by structural analogs of the sex pheromone in Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Albert SANS, Miguel MORÁN, Magí RIBA, Ángel GUERRERO, Jaume ROIG, César GEMENO

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 579-586, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.078

Plant volatiles can synergize the response to moth pheromone. Synthetic pheromone analogs, in turn, have the opposite effect in reducing pheromone attractiveness. To determine how these two types of stimuli interact and influence male moth behaviour, we performed wind tunnel experiments on the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana. We noticed that a blend of host plant volatiles [(E)-β-caryophyllene, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and 1-octen-3-ol in a 100:20:10:5 ratio] significantly increased the response of males to an optimized blend of sex pheromone [(7E,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate (E7,Z9-12:Ac), (7E,9Z)-...

Variation of thorax flight temperature among twenty Australian butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae)

Gabriel NÈVE, Casey HALL

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 571-578, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.077

Thermal requirements for flight in butterflies is determined by a combination of external factors, behaviour and physical constraints. Thorax temperature of 152 butterflies was monitored with an infra-red thermometer in controlled laboratory conditions. The temperature at take-off varied from 13.4°C, for a female Heteronympha merope to 46.3°C, for a female Junonia villida. Heteronympha merope, an understorey species, had the lowest recorded take-off temperatures, with females flying at a much lower thorax temperatures than males. Among the tested butterfly species, warming-up rate was positively correlated with take-off temperature...

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Spilarctia robusta (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae) and its phylogenetic implications

Yu SUN, Sen TIAN, Cen QIAN, Yu-Xuan SUN, Muhammad N. ABBAS, Saima KAUSAR, Lei WANG, Guoqing WEI, Bao-Jian ZHU, Chao-Liang LIU

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 558-570, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.076

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spilarctia robusta (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae) was sequenced and analyzed. The circular mitogenome is made up of 15,447 base pairs (bp). It contains a set of 37 genes, with the gene complement and order similar to that of other lepidopterans. The 12 protein coding genes (PCGs) have a typical mitochondrial start codon (ATN codons), whereas cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene utilizes unusually the CAG codon as documented for other lepidopteran mitogenomes. Four of the 13 PCGs have incomplete termination codons, the cox1, nad4 and nad6 with a single T,...

Tri-trophic interaction involving host plants, black legume aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the predator, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Snehasish ROUTRAY, Karnam V. HARI PRASAD

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 551-557, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.075

Interactions involving host plants (cowpea, groundnut, cotton, sunflower, greengram, blackgram) an insect herbivore, black legume aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and a predator, the zigzag beetle Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated during 2014-2015. The preference of the aphid A. craccivora for host plants measured in terms of growth and multiplication was cowpea > groundnut > greengram > blackgram > sunflower > cotton (most preferred to least preferred). Cowpea was the most preferred host plant for growth and multiplication of A. craccivora....

Females of the parasitoid wasp, Dendrocerus carpenteri (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), adjust offspring sex allocation when competing for hosts

Manfred MACKAUER, Andrew CHOW

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 542-550, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.074

Parasitoid females may adjust offspring sex allocation according to the number and quality of hosts available. Because in solitary species only one offspring survives per host, already parasitized hosts are of low quality and generally rejected. Superparasitism (i.e., sequential oviposition by the same or different females) results in aggressive interactions and competition for nutritional resources among larvae. We examined variations in the offspring sex ratio of Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), a solitary ectoparasitoid developing as a hyperparasitoid on the prepupae and pupae of primary aphid parasitoids inside...

Cryoprotectant systems and cold tolerance of insects inhabiting central Yakutia (Russian Far East)

Natalia G. LI

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 537-541, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.073

Strong tolerance of freezing is an important strategy for insects living in extremely cold regions. They produce highly effective cryoprotectant systems consisting of ice-nucleating proteins and polyols, which enables tolerable freezing of the body fluid. Therefore, the measurement of the concentrations of polyols and the activity of ice nucleators in the haemolymph is an essential tool for describing tolerance to ice formation in insects occurring in particularly cold places. This study evaluates three parameters: insect body supercooling point (SCP), haemolymph glycerol content and the profile of haemolymph ice nucleating activity that characterize...

Comparative efficiency of traps for horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) survey in riparian oak-ash forests in Danube floodplain


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 531-536, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.072

The objective of this work was to evaluate the relative trap efficiency of the three modified traps baited with 1-octen-3-ol as attractant, Box, Nzi and Canopy, for horse fly (Tabanidae) survey. Nine traps (three traps per trap type) were tested in 3 × 3 Latin square designs during summer 2011 in riparian oak-ash forests in the Danube floodplain of Croatia. Overall, the traps caught 1,986 specimens of 11 horse flies species during the study period. The most abundant species caught was Tabanus bromius (58%), followed by Tabanus tergestinus (21%), Tabanus maculicornis (16%), Tabanus sudeticus (2%), Atylotus loewianus (1%)...

Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite loci in the genome of the dragonhead sap beetle Thymogethes norvegicus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 528-530, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.071

Here we describe 16 novel microsatellite loci in the genome of the dragonhead sap beetle Thymogethes norvegicus, which were identified using a next-generation sequencing approach. In 40 dragonhead sap beetles from a population in southern Norway, we found 2-4 alleles per locus. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.18-0.65. Three of the loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After correcting for multiple tests, one pairwise locus combination displayed significant linkage disequilibrium. These novel microsatellite loci will be useful for future population structure, genetic diversity and conservation genetic studies...

Size-related mortality during overwintering in cavity-nesting ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

S³awomir MITRUS

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 524-527, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.070

The ongoing process of climate change will result in higher temperatures during winter and therefore might increase the survival of overwintering invertebrates. However, the process may also lead to a reduction in snow cover and expose overwintering invertebrates to lower temperatures, which could result in higher mortality. During a field experiment, I investigated the effects of a reduction in snow cover on the survival of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus, which overwinters in nests located on the ground. Ant colonies differed in the survival rate of the workers in the experimental (from which snow cover was removed) and control group. In...

Book Review: Gandy M. 2016: Moth. Dodd A. 2016: Beetle.


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 523, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.069

Gandy M. 2016: Moth. Reaktion Books, London, 240 pp., 120 illustrations, 103 in colour. ISBN 978-1-78023-585-1 (pbk). Price GBP 12.95.
Dodd A. 2016: Beetle. Reaktion Books, London, 192 pp., 102 illustrations, 80 in colour. ISBN 978-1-78023-488-5 (pbk). Price GBP 12.95.

Host plants and aphid hosts influence the selection behaviour of three aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

Loulou ALBITTAR, Mohannad ISMAIL, Claude BRAGARD, Thierry HANCE

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 516-522, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.068

Aphis fabae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are insect pests that damage sugar beet and bean crops. Both are responsible for losses in yield and transmission of viral diseases, and may be present on the same host at the same time. Three parasitoid species, Aphidius colemani, Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) have the potential to be used as biological control agents against at least one of these species of aphids. As a first step prior to the implementation of a biological control program, our aim was to understand the host selection behaviour of the parasitoids,...

Allelic variants of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: Constitutive and insecticide-mediated expression in a Malaysian strain of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

Fatma M.A. EL-GARJ, Mustafa F.F. WAJIDI, Silas W. AVICOR

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 507-515, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.067

Cytochrome P450s (P450s) involved in insecticide resistance reduce the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control by rendering vector control ineffective. They are recorded in many species of vectors and have various constitutive and insecticide induction profiles. In this study, the isolation and prediction of the structure of a P450 from a strain of Aedes aegypti originating from Malaysia is reported. Quantitative mRNA expression of this gene and a previously reported P450, CYP4H28v2, in the developmental stages of the mosquito after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides is also reported. The isolated P450, CYP4H31v2,...

How differences in the settling behaviour of moths (Lepidoptera) may contribute to sampling bias when using automated light traps

Mirko WÖLFLING, Mira C. BECKER, Britta UHL, Anja TRAUB, Konrad FIEDLER

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 502-506, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.066

Quantitative community-wide moth surveys frequently employ flight-interception traps equipped with UV-light emitting sources as attractants. It has long been known that moth species differ in their responsiveness to light traps. We studied how the settling behaviour of moths at a light trap may further contribute to sampling bias. We observed the behaviour of 1426 moths at a light tower. Moths were classified as either, settling and remaining still after arrival, or continually moving on the gauze for extended periods of time. Moths that did not move after settling may not end up in the sampling container of the light trap and therefore are under-represented...

Settling moths as potential pollinators of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Rubiaceae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 497-501, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.065

Nocturnal pollinators such as moths have received less attention than diurnal insects. To elucidate whether nocturnal moths are important pollinators, we observed both the diurnal and nocturnal visitors to the flowers of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Rubiaceae) in a warm-temperate forest in central Japan. The diurnal visitors included various taxonomic groups (e.g., bees, hoverflies and butterflies). The nocturnal visitors were exclusively moths (Geometridae, Erebidae, Noctuidae and Crambidae). Pollen grains of U. rhynchophylla were attached to both diurnal and nocturnal visitors. Although diurnal flower visitors carried pollen...

Seasonal polyphenism in Eristalis pertinax (Diptera: Syrphidae)

Lukasz E. MIELCZAREK, Andrzej OLEKSA, Katarzyna MEYZA, Adam TOFILSKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 489-496, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.064

Eristalis pertinax varies seasonally, with the spring morph more hairy than the summer morph. We measured the size and the venation of the wings of the seasonal morphs. Wings of the spring morph were significantly larger than those of the summer morph and those of females were larger than those of males. There were also significant differences between the morphs in wing venation and their allometric relationship. The differences between sexes were larger than differences between seasonal morphs. The allometry can account for the sexual dimorphism but not seasonal dimorphism. The differences between seasonal morphs in wing shape were relatively...

The mitochondrial genome of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and identification of invading mitochondrial sequences (numts) in the W chromosome


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 482-488, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.063

The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella is a widespread pest of stored products and a classical object in experimental biology. In the present study, we determined its complete mitochondrial genome sequence. The genome is circular, consists of 15,327 bp and comprises 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA- and 22 tRNA-coding genes in an order typical for the Ditrysia clade of the order Lepidoptera. A phylogenetic study of the Lepidoptera based on complete mitochondrial genomes places E. kuehniella correctly in the family Pyralidae and supports major lepidopteran taxa as phylogenetic clades. The W chromosome of E. kuehniella is an...

Assessment of the quality of the terrestrial habitat of the threatened dragonfly, Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae)

Michal HYKEL, Filip HARABI©, Ale¹ DOLNÝ

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 476-481, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.062

The majority of the conservation strategies for threatened dragonflies are designed to protect only their aquatic habitats. Sympetrum depressiusculum is a species threatened not only by the destruction of its aquatic habitats but also by its association with a specific terrestrial environment. In this study, we aimed to identify the key elements of the terrestrial environment of adult S. depressiusculum. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine habitat preferences of adults and the particular features of habitat patches, such as vegetation cover, vegetation structure and the availability of potential prey. Our results indicate...

Trophic induction of diapause in native and invasive populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 469-475, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.061

Ovipositing females from invasive (Krasnodar Territory of Russia) and native (Far East of Russia) populations of Harmonia axyridis were fed one of a set of diets ranging from 50 Myzus persicae aphids every day to 1 aphid every 10 days and all were also provided with a 10% sugar solution. The experiment was conducted at 20°C under short (12 h) and long (18 h) day conditions. Most of the females from the native population that consumed 50 or 10 aphids per day continued to oviposit under both long and short day conditions. Females that consumed 1 aphid per day or every 2 days practically stopped laying eggs but under long day conditions...

Niche partitioning in tenebrionid species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) inhabiting Mediterranean coastal dunes


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 462-468, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.060

We analyzed the abundance, distribution and niche overlap of species (Pianka's Ojk index) in tenebrionid beetle communities inhabiting different biotopes in Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sand dunes. The rank abundance distribution of the different species has the form of a geometric series in both communities as predicted by the niche preemption hypothesis for communities in harsh environments. Mean niche overlap values did not deviate significantly from null expectations, which indicates random interspecific interactions. These results, coupled with evidence of species habitat preferences, led us to conclude that the community organization...

The effect of hay mulching on soil temperature and the abundance and diversity of soil-dwelling arthropods in potato fields

Péter DUDÁS, László MENYHÁRT, Csongor GEDEON, Gergely AMBRUS, Ferenc TÓTH

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 456-461, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.059

The average soil temperature was significantly lower in plots covered with hay. Hay mulching, however, did not increase significantly the total number of soil micro-arthropods collected using a soil pin trap and a soil sampler. Significant increases in the number of individuals was recorded only for certain groups. 64% of all the arthropods collected using soil pin traps were collected in hay-covered plots and 36% in control plots. This increase was statistically significant for the orders Entomobryomorpha and Poduromorpha of the subclass Collembola and surface-dwelling (epigeic) Coleoptera. For the samples collected using the soil sampler, 57% of...

Genetic identification of a non-native species introgression into wild population of the field cricket Gryllus campestris (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in Central Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 446-455, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.058

Two species of the genus Gryllus occur in Europe: G. campestris and G. bimaculatus. The first is widely distributed in the north-western Palaearctic, while the second, G. bimaculatus, occurs predominantly in the Mediterranean area. There is a visible pattern in the distribution of G. campestris, the insect being rare and threatened in the western part of its range, whereas it is still abundant in the east. Despite the fact that this species is commonly used in laboratory experiments, its natural populations are poorly characterised. In the present study, we analysed cricket populations from the lower Oder and Vistula...

Host condition effects upon Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) captures on decoy-baited branch traps

Michael J. DOMINGUE, Jennifer BERKEBILE, Kim STEINER, Loyal P. HALL, Kevin R. CLOONAN, David LANCE, Thomas C. BAKER

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 438-445, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.057

We deployed branch traps in an ash (Fraxinus) plantation to investigate how Agrilus planipennis behavior is associated with Fraxinus pennsylvanica condition and dispersal patterns. Data were collected from traps with or without the presence of beetle visual decoys, and from a yearly survey of exit holes. The traps were placed on trees that were either clearly declining, with most foliage arising from epicormic sprouting, or on apparently healthy trees, with little evidence of damage or decline. We calculated correlations of exit holes among neighboring tree rings and also between exit holes and male trap captures. The damaged trees...

Implications of insect responses to supernormal visual releasing stimuli in intersexual communication and flower-visiting behaviour: A review


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 429-437, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.056

Animals, including human beings, tend to respond more strongly to stimuli that are associated with the highest relative rewards. This applies not only to food rewards but also to reproductive success. In the present review article this issue is discussed for insects in connection with intersexual communication and flower-visiting behaviour. Implications of the preference for supernormal visual releasing stimuli are examined from a sensory and evolutionary perspective, including a consideration of the choice of potential mates and recognition of the most rewarding flowers.

Reconstructing a 55-million-year-old butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 423-428, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.055

The oldest butterfly fossil known, which was formed about 55 Ma in what is now Denmark, is described. The fragments of its forewing venation indicates it belongs to the Hesperiidae. Further reconstruction indicates that it fits in the Coeliadinae and is close to the extant genera Hasora and Burara. It is here described as Protocoeliades kristenseni gen. et sp. n. It is the first butterfly fossil found on a continent (Europe) where its closest relatives do not currently occur. Its position on the phylogenetic tree of the Coeliadinae and its importance in understanding the time dimension in the evolution of butterflies, and their...

Cellular immune response of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to infection by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana

Dongxu SHEN, Miao LI, Yuan CHU, Minglin LANG, Chunju AN

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 415-422, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.054

The term cellular immune response refers to haemocyte-mediated responses, including phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation. In the present study, we identified five types of circulating haemocytes in larvae of the haemolymph of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), including granulocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes, prohaemocytes, and spherulocytes. The relative number of total free haemocytes per larva decreased significantly 0.5, 24, and 36 h after the injection of Beauveria bassiana conidia. Upon conidia challenge, both phagocytosis and nodulation were observed in the collected haemolymph from O. furnacalis...

Identification of microsatellite markers for a worldwide distributed, highly invasive ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 409-414, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.053

Tapinoma melanocephalum is a worldwide distributed, highly invasive ant species. It lives in close association with human societies and its distribution is human-mediated in large measure. The geographical origin of this ant species is unknown, but its introduction in areas previously devoided of its presence can represent a threat to the native biota, act as an agricultural pest or as a pathogen vector. To investigate the genetic structure and phylogeography of this species we identified 12 new polymorphic microsatellite markers, and in addition, we tested and selected 12 ant-universal microsatellites polymorphic in T. melanocephalum....

Fast slide preparation for thrips (Thysanoptera) routine identifications

Luís C.P. SILVEIRA, Marcelo M. HARO

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 403-408, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.052

Thrips are important agricultural pests and accurate identification is important for their effective management. In order to determine species, however, they need to be mounted on slides and the traditional process is time-consuming. The aim of this paper is to describe a simple and fast method to prepare temporary slides for the routine identification of thrips, which is not dependent on their colour and hardness. Four species of thrips of different colours were used in the preparations: Frankliniella occidentalis (yellow with brown tergal markings), Frankliniella schultzei (entirely brown), Haplothrips gowdeyii (dark brown to...

Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) ovipositing in old galls of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Giuliano CERASA, Bruno MASSA

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 397-402, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.051

This paper presents biological notes on two species of Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae that emerged from old spongy-woody galls of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951 collected in Sicily (Italy) in April 2015: Leptophyes sicula Kleukers, Odé et Fontana, 2010 (Phaneropterinae) and Cyrtaspis scutata (Charpentier, 1825) (Meconematinae). Between the end of April and the first few days of May a total of 30 neanids emerged from the galls, were reared and their life-cycle recorded. While L. sicula laid eggs in groups, C. scutata laid single eggs inside the galls; both species in a few years have adapted to exploiting this new...

Infestation of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Yoania japonica by the two-winged fly, Chyliza vittata (Diptera: Psilidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 393-396, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.050

Chyliza vittata is known to utilize leaves, stems and underground parts of several leafy and leafless orchids. Compared to the well-recorded feeding habits of C. vittata in Europe, its feeding habits in Japan are poorly studied. Thus, further records of its host plants and the habits of its larvae in Japan are likely to reveal the similarities and differences in its feeding habits in Europe and Japan. The current study reports C. vittata feeding on the stems of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Yoania japonica in central Japan. This study also showed that in spite of the small size of Yoania its reproductive success is...

Comparison of growth parameters of the predator, Chrysoperla nipponensis-B (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) reared on a diet of eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and an artificial diet containing ginger

Shafique A. MEMON, Dzolkhifli OMAR, Rita MUHAMAD, Ahamd S. SAJAP, Norhayu ASIB, Arfan A. GILAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 387-392, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.049

The growth parameters of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla nipponensis-B (Okamoto), were studied under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality was recorded in the immature stages (instars 1st, 2nd, 3rd and pupae) of C. nipponensis fed on the eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (37.26%). The sex ratios (proportion of female to male) when reared on the eggs of C. cephalonica and an artificial diet with ginger were 0.93 : 1.00 and 0.87 : 1.00, respectively. The maximum life spans of females reared on the eggs of C. cephalonica and an artificial diet with ginger were 63 and 64 days,...

Feeding of two species of Scydmaeninae "hole scrapers", Cephennium majus and C. ruthenum (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), on oribatid mites


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 372-386, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.048

Prey preferences and feeding-related behaviour of two Central European species of Scydmaeninae, Cephennium majus and Cephennium ruthenum, were studied under laboratory conditions. These beetles capture mites by using unique premental suckers and then penetrate the prey's cuticle by slowly scraping a hole with their short mandibles. A mechanism for interlocking the sides of beetle's labrum with closed mandibles was discovered, confirming that the predator's mouthparts can be tightly sealed around the penetration site, which enables them to inject digestive juices and ingest liquefied tissues of the prey through a tiny hole. The feeding...

Diversity of adipokinetic hormones in termites (Isoptera)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 364-371, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.047

In this study we report on the structural diversity of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in the evolutionarily oldest group of social insects, the termites (Isoptera). Using molecular methods combined with in silico bioinformatic analysis, we studied and compared the sequences coding for these neuropeptides in thirteen species of five families of Isoptera. There are three types of AKH octapeptides in termites: Empusa pennata adipokinetic hormone (Emppe-AKH; pQVNFTPNWamide), Microhodotermes viator corpus cardiacum peptide (Micvi-CC; pQINFTPNWamide) and Periplaneta americana cardioaccelerating hormone (Peram-CAH-I; pQVNFSPNWamide). Of...

Comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 tortoise beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) from Brazil

Amália T. LOPES, Flávia R. FERNANDES, Marielle C. SCHNEIDER

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 352-363, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.046

In the present work, we have characterized the chromosomes of 13 Cassidinae beetles, belonging to four tribes, the broad aim being to increase the cytogenetic data and establish the mechanisms involved in chromosome evolution of this subfamily, which appear to be conserved karyotypically, i.e. 2n = 16 + Xyp. The analysis of mitotic and meiotic cells revealed a high diversity of diploid numbers (2n = 18, 2n = 22, 2n = 26, 2n = 32, 2n = 36, 2n = 40, 2n = 42), and the presence of sex chromosome system of the Xyp type in most species, with the exception of two representatives that exhibited Xyr and XY systems. C-banding...

Partial consumption of different species of aphid prey by the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 345-351, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.045

The partial consumption of prey refers to when a predator does not consume all the digestible biomass of an animal it has killed. The frequency of partial consumption of prey by the polyphagous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) was recorded for different species of prey and prey population structures, in single and mixed prey species patches. All the instars of the aphid, Aphis gossypii, were provided as prey alone or together with Myzus persicae or Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Numbers killed were determined when equal (10 nymphs of each instar, 40 in total) or unequal numbers (higher numbers of young...

Book Review: Pearson D.L., Knisley C.B., Duran D.P. & Kazilek C.J. 2015: A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Identification, Natural History, and Distribution of the Cicindelinae. 2nd ed.


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 344, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.044

Pearson D.L., Knisley C.B., Duran D.P. & Kazilek C.J. 2015: A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Identification, Natural History, and Distribution of the Cicindelinae. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, 251 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-936717-7. Price USD 35.44.

Northern geometrid forest pests (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) hatch at lower temperatures than their southern conspecifics: Implications of climate change


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 337-343, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.043

Climate change may facilitate shifts in the ranges and the spread of insect pests, but a warming climate may also affect herbivorous insects adversely if it disrupts the locally adapted synchrony between the phenology of insects and that of their host plant. The ability of a pest species to colonize new areas depends on its ability to adjust the timing of phenological events in its life cycle, particularly at high latitudes where there is marked seasonality in temperature and day length. Here we incubated eggs of three species of geometrid moth, Epirrita autumnata, Operophtera brumata and Erannis defoliaria from different geographical...

A synthesis of feeding habits and reproduction rhythm in Italian seed-feeding ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 325-336, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.042

Many species of carabid beetles are important pre- and post-dispersal seed feeders of herbaceous plants. Here we summarise data from dissections, field observations, rearing and "cafeteria" experiments on 55 granivorous and 188 omnivorous species that occur in Italy. We tested the hypothesis that seed feeding carabids are restricted to taxa with pronounced morphological adaptations for manipulating and crushing seeds in both the larval and adult stages. The feeding guilds of carabids were rearranged into the following groups: (i) strict predators with long mandibles and predaceous larvae, often depending also on non-prey food; (ii) omnivorous species...

The cabbage moth or the sorrel moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 320-324, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.041

When insect herbivores develop over many generations on the same plant species, their descendants may evolve physiological adaptations that enable them to develop more successfully on that plant species than naïve conspecifics. Here, we compared development of wild and lab-reared caterpillars of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, on a cultivar of cabbage Brassica oleracea (cv. Cyrus) and on a wild plant species, sorrel, Rumex acetosa, on which the wild strain had been collected and reared for two earlier consecutive generations. The lab strain had been reared on the same cabbage cultivar for more than 20 years representing...

Capsazepine affects thermal preferences of the American cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 315-319, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.040

Capsazepine is a competitive antagonist of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist responsible for the spicy taste of pepper. TRPV1 agonists and antagonists are known to affect mammalian body temperature, but their action on thermoregulation in insects is poorly known. In this study we evaluated the effect of capsazepine on the thermal preference of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana using a thermal gradient. Our results revealed that capsazepine in submicromolar concentrations induces a preference for higher ambient temperatures when compared to the control insects. To assess whether capsazepine may act also as an antagonist of capsaicin in insects,...

Reproductive status of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) affects its response to infection by Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)

Paulina KRAMARZ, Dariusz MA£EK, Maria GAWE£, Szymon M. DROBNIAK, Joanna HOMA

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 309-314, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.039

Gender-specific reproductive roles are important factors determining sexual dimorphism. Here, we investigate the effects of sex-based differences and reproductive status on the defence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) against infection by Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, 1934) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Female and male beetles, either virgin or post-copulation, were exposed individually to nematodes. Individuals were then sampled every 12 h, dissected, and checked for the presence of nematodes; we also measured their phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Reproductive status affected resistance to nematodes and...

Book review: Vega F.E. & Hofstetter R.W. (eds) 2015: Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species, 1st ed.


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 307-308, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.038

Vega F.E. & Hofstetter R.W. (eds) 2015: Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species, 1st ed. Elsevier, Academic Press, Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, 640 pp. ISBN 9780124171565. Price EUR 92.95.

Characterization of 16 novel microsatellite loci for Ephippiger diurnus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) using pyrosequencing technology and cross-species amplification


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 302-306, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.037

A novel panel of 16 microsatellite markers, obtained by pyrosequencing of enriched genomic libraries, is reported for the flightless European bushcricket Ephippiger diurnus (Dufour) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Five multiplex and one simplex PCR protocols were optimized, and the polymorphism at the 16 loci was assessed in two natural populations from southern France. The mean allele number and (expected mean heterozygosity) were 8.94 (0.71) and 6.57 (0.70), respectively, in each population. Several loci were at Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD), possibly due to the incidence of null alleles. The occurrence of null alleles has been previously...

Has the currently warming climate affected populations of the mountain ringlet butterfly, Erebia epiphron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in low-elevation mountains?

Martin KONVIÈKA, Jiøí BENE©, Oldøich ÈÍ®EK, Tomá¹ KURAS, Irena KLEÈKOVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 295-301, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.036

Climate change scenarios predict losses of cold-adapted species from insular locations, such as middle high mountains at temperate latitudes, where alpine habitats extend for a few hundred meters above the timberline. However, there are very few studies following the fates of such species in the currently warming climate. We compared transect monitoring data on an alpine butterfly, Erebia epiphron (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from summit elevations of two such alpine islands (above 1300 m) in the Jeseník Mts and Krkono¹e Mts, Czech Republic. We asked if population density, relative total population abundance and phenology recorded in the late 1990s...

A case study of Heleomyzidae (Diptera) recorded on snow in Poland with a review of their winter activity in Europe

Agnieszka SOSZYÑSKA-MAJ, Andrzej J. WO¬NICA

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 279-294, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.035

Twenty eight species of winter-active Heleomyzidae were collected during a long-term study in Poland. More than 130 samples of insects, including Heleomyzidae, were collected from the surface of snow in lowland and mountain areas using a semi-quantitative method. Lowland and mountain assemblages of Heleomyzidae recorded on snow were quite different. Heleomyza modesta (Meigen, 1835) and Scoliocentra (Leriola) brachypterna (Loew, 1873) dominated in the mountains, Tephrochlamys rufiventris (Meigen, 1830) mainly in the lowlands and Heteromyza rotundicornis (Zetterstedt, 1846) was common in both habitats. Heleomyzidae...

Saprinosternus nom. n., a new replacement name for Alienosternus Lackner, 2016 (Coleoptera: Histeridae), non Alienosternus Martins, 1976 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 278, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.034

The subgenus Alienosternus Lackner, 2016 of the genus Phoxonotus Marseul, 1862 (Coleoptera: Histeridae), described in Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 240-258, is a junior homonym of Alienosternus Martins, 1976 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and is hereby replaced by Saprinosternus nom. n. The status of the single known type specimens of Phoxonotus suturalis Lewis, 1907, P. lectus Lewis, 1902 and P. venustus (Erichson, 1834) (assumed to be holotypes in Lackner, 2016) is clarified.

Mycobiota in the brood cells of the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

Tobias ENGL, Bettina BODENSTEIN, Erhard STROHM

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 271-277, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.033

Mass provisioning insects have to cope with microbial spoilage of their food supplies. As their fitness is directly linked to the availability of high quality food for their offspring, they have evolved various mechanisms for preserving these resources. The European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, uses several mechanisms to not only preserve the food for their larvae, paralyzed workers of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, but also protect the larvae that develop on the stored food. To assess the spectrum of fungi that pose a threat to beewolf brood cells, we manipulated brood cells by removing the insect defenses. We monitored the...

Book review: Kritski G. 2015: The Tears of Re: Beekeeping in Ancient Egypt.


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 270, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.032

Kritski G. 2015: The Tears of Re: Beekeeping in Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 133 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-936138-0 (hbk). Price GBP 19.99.

A new suite of twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite loci in the parasitic wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Promising molecular tools for studying the population genetics of several beneficial braconid species

Madougou GARBA, Anne LOISEAU, Laure BENOIT, Nathalie GAUTHIER

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 265-269, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.031

Combining a biotin-enrichment protocol and 454GS-FLX titanium pyrosequencing technology, we characterised 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the parasitic wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a cosmopolitan species commonly used in biological control against a wide range of both major lepidopterous pests of stored products and field crops in different parts of the world. Three multiplex PCR sets were optimised and characterised across 46 H. hebetor specimens from two samples collected from millet fields in Niger. Two to 11 alleles were found per locus and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.289 to 0.826. Polymorphism...

The effect of ambient temperature on larvae of Scatopsciara cunicularius (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on the thallose liverwort Marchantia polymorpha


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 259-264, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.030

Herbivory on liverworts is rarely reported. We studied the effects of feeding by larvae of the sciarid fly Scatopsciara cunicularius on the growth of the thalloid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha at two different constant temperatures, 12°C and 22°C. Larvae reared at the lower temperature fed slower and over a longer period of time, which resulted in more damage and a greater reduction in the growth of the liverwort than that caused by those reared at the higher temperature. The reduction in growth of the liverwort was positively density-dependent in terms of number of larvae at both temperatures. These results indicate that the larvae...

Revision of the attaphilous genus Phoxonotus (Coleoptera: Histeridae: Saprininae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 240-258, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.029

In this paper the strictly attaphilous Central- and South American genus Phoxonotus Marseul, 1862 is revised. Based on the structure of their antennal cavities, the species of Phoxonotus are newly split into two subgenera: Phoxonotus Marseul, 1862 and Alienosternus subgen. n. (type species Saprinus venustus Erichson, 1834). The subgenus Phoxonotus contains three species: Phoxonotus (P.) tuberculatus Marseul, 1862 (French Guyana, Suriname, Brazil: Pará, Mato Grosso), P. (P.) lectus Lewis, 1902 (eastern Peru) and the newly described P. parvotuberculatus...

Neither Menoscinae nor Lophopinae, a new genus that challenges the current classification of the Lophopidae Stål, 1866 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

Menglin WANG, Yinglun WANG, Adeline SOULIER-PERKINS

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 233-239, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.028

The monotypic genus Silvispina M. Wang & Soulier-Perkins, gen. n. and new species S. changpotou M. Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. n. belonging to the family Lophopidae Stål, 1866, from Yunnan Province in China, is described and illustrated. The peculiarity of the first metatarsal segment of this genus is stressed and the taxonomic position of this new genus is discussed. The ornamentation and shape of metatibia and first tarsal segment (the characters that currently distinguish the subfamilies Menoscinae and Lophopinae) do not agree with either subfamily and the new genus is placed as incertae sedis in the Lophopidae. The genus...

Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) in urban ecosystems: A review

Giovanna VILLALOBOS-JIMÉNEZ, Alison M. DUNN, Christopher HASSALL

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 217-232, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.027

The expansion of urban areas is one of the most significant anthropogenic impacts on the natural landscape. Due to their sensitivity to stressors in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, dragonflies and damselflies (the Odonata) may provide insights into the effects of urbanisation on biodiversity. However, while knowledge about the impacts of urbanisation on odonates is growing, there has not been a comprehensive review of this body of literature until now. This is the first systematic literature review conducted to evaluate both the quantity and topics of research conducted on odonates in urban ecosystems. From this research, 79 peer-reviewed papers...

Effect of three species of host tree on the cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Yuqian FENG, Reaxit TURSUN, Zhichun XU, Fang OUYANG, Shixiang ZONG

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 212-216, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.026

The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a serious destructive pest of forests throughout China as it attacks a wide range of host plants. The effect of host trees on the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae could be the basis for predicting the performance of this forest pest on different common hosts.To evaluate the effect of different species of host plant on the cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of A. glabripennis, we measured the supercooling point (SCP), fresh mass, protein content and concentrations of low molecular weight substances in overwintering larvae collected from three different host species...

Size- and context-dependent nest-staying behaviour of males of the Japanese dung beetle, Copris acutidens (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 207-211, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.025

Male dimorphism in insects is often accompanied by alternative mating tactics, which may, together with morphological traits, determine fitness of the different male morphs. Fitness consequences of male head horn size, male-male competition and male nest-staying behaviour were experimentally assessed in Copris acutidens, in which major and minor males can co-occur in nests. Possible differences in their reproductive behaviour and breeding success were assayed in a breeding experiment, in which females were paired with one major male, one minor male, or a pair of major and minor males. The advantage of major males staying in a nest along with...

A little further south: Host range and genetics of the Northern pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pinivora (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) at the southern edge of its distribution


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 200-206, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.024

The Northern pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pinivora (Treitschke, 1834) shows a highly scattered distribution with fragmented populations across Europe. A previous study exploring the postglacial history of T. pinivora defined it as a cold-tolerant relict species and concluded that a progressive reduction of suitable habitats after the postglacial expansion from refugia in the southern Iberian peninsula best explained the distribution and genetic structure of populations of this species. However, recent records, both by us and others, challenge this view. Surprisingly, some of the newly found populations from southern Spain use...

Population dynamics, seasonality and aphid prey of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in an urban park in central Japan


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 192-199, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.023

The ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius), has been extending its distribution in and around urban areas at higher latitudes in Japan over the past 100 years. Between 2003 and 2011, we investigated the seasonal occurrence, aphid prey and population dynamics of this species in an urban park in Osaka City, central Japan. We found that C. sexmaculata completes three generations a year in Osaka. Overwintered adults emerge in March or April and produce two (or rarely one) generations by summer. Second-generation adults aestivate and subsequently produce another generation in autumn. This species feeds on five species of aphids...

Do sexually dimorphic glands in the harvestman Gryne perlata (Arachnida: Opiliones) release contact pheromones during mating?

Jéssica M. DIAS, Rodrigo H. WILLEMART

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 184-191, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.022

There are records of glands that produce sexual pheromones that are released into the environment or applied directly on sexual partners. Within Opiliones (Arachnida), several harvestmen in the suborder Laniatores have sexually dimorphic glands on legs I and IV, the mode of use of which is recorded only in two species but their function is unknown: while walking, males rub the glands against the substrate or against their body. Here we test an alternative and non-exclusive hypothesis that the glands present on the legs of male Gryne perlata (Cosmetidae) produce contact pheromones used in mating. We predicted that males would touch the females...

Arthropod fauna recorded in flowers of apomictic Taraxacum section Ruderalia


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 173-183, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.021

Flowers of dicotyledonous plants host communities of arthropod species. We studied the community associated with dandelion (Taraxacum section Ruderalia), a complex of apomictic micro-species abundant in central Europe. Identification of microspecies in the field was impracticable. These plants produce an abundance of flowers that host arthropod communities that are not yet fully documented. We investigated species occurrence, its diurnal and seasonal variation and some of the factors that determine the abundance of the dominant species. Insect and spiders were collected from 2010 to 2012 at a locality in Prague. Whole capitula were harvested...

Diversity of grasshoppers (Caelifera) recorded on the banks of a Ramsar listed temporary salt lake in Algeria

Sarah MAHLOUL, Abboud HARRAT, Daniel PETIT

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 158-172, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.020

The chotts in Algeria are temporary salt lakes recognized as important wintering sites of water birds but neglected in terms of the diversity of the insects living on their banks. Around a chott in the wetland complex in the high plains near Constantine (eastern Algeria), more than half of the species of plants are annuals that dry out in summer, a situation that prompted us to sample the vegetation in spring over a period of two years. Three zones were identified based on an analysis of the vegetation and measurements of the salt content of the soils. Surveys carried out at monthly intervals over the course of a year revealed temporal and spatial...

Co-occurrence of host plants associated with plant quality determines performance patterns of the specialist butterfly, Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Troidini)

Rodrigo S. RIOS, Cristian SALGADO-LUARTE, Gisela C. STOTZ, Ernesto GIANOLI

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 150-157, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.019

In herbivorous insects, differences in the degree of specialization to host plants emerge when the distribution of an herbivore differs from that of its host plants, which results in a mosaic of populations differing in performance on the different host plants. Using a specialized butterfly, Battus polydamas archidamas Boisduval, 1936, which feeds exclusively on the genus Aristolochia, we test whether host plant co-occurrence and associated differences in host quality modify local adaptation in terms of larval preference and performance. We compared individuals from a monospecific host stand of Aristolochia chilensis with those...

Factors limiting the northern distribution of the blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Eastern Canada


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 143-149, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.018

Until recently, the Canadian distribution of the blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), was restricted to Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. The insect was first mentioned in southern Quebec in 1996 and, to date, it has not reached the Lac St-Jean region, where 34% of Canadian blueberry acreage is located. Two questions concerning the northern limit of distribution of the blueberry maggot in Quebec were addressed. First, are wild plants suitable hosts for larval development? We collected the fruit of five wild plants, (e.g. Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium...

Effects of ultraviolet-C and microwave irradiation on the expression of heat shock protein genes in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 135-142, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.017

The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), is a major pest of stored grain kernels. Irradiation is an established technique for controlling insects in stored grain and is a major stress factor affecting these insects. Since heat shock protein (hsp) genes respond to this stress, we proposed that hsps may be associated with irradiated stress tolerance in S. zeamais. The responses of the maize weevil to exposure to ultraviolet-C (UV-C) and microwave irradiation were assessed at four developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The results revealed that exposure to UV-C (254 nm, < 8 h) did not affect the survival of the maize...

Depilation increases while hairiness decreases the risk of drowning: A hitherto unappreciated survival role of setae in woolly bear caterpillars of the moth Lemyra imparilis (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 130-134, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.016

This note aims to put on record a hitherto unreported function of caterpillar setae supplementary to those already known. When woolly bear caterpillars of the moth Lemyra imparilis (Butler) have their body hairs removed and are dropped into a bucket of water from a height of 30 cm, they sink immediately. Caterpillars, however, with an intact coat of hairs usually float. This hitherto unreported role of caterpillar setae as life-rafts should depend on a high contact angle θe, and thus on the position, density and dimensions of the hairs. An SEM examination of the surface structure of the setae revealed a system of fine grooves...

Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic

Josef MATÌNA, Iva ©ÍMOVÁ, Jakub BROM, Kateøina NOVOTNÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 122-129, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.015

The macrozoobenthos in saline pools at dumps in a former coal mining area was studied over a period of two years. Due to specific environmental conditions these pools are unique in the Czech Republic. Extremely high values of salinity (up to 11‰) along with a low concentration of dissolved phosphorus (0.01-0.1 mg.l-1) are typical of some of the water in this area. The pools were grouped into three categories based on their conductivity values and treated using cow dung, municipal wastewater treatment sludge and inorganic NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) fertilizer at doses recommended for carp ponds. The application of fertilizer...

Relationships between Psychidae communities (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) and the ecological characteristics of old-growth forests in a beech dominated landscape


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 113-121, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.014

Several studies address the question of which forest attributes are most important for the conservation of biodiversity. Unfortunately, there are no unequivocal answers because the response of a biological group to changes in forest structure depends on its natural history and scale of organization. It is important to increase our knowledge of the potential relationships between under studied groups of species and forest variables in order to adopt timber harvesting strategies not detrimental to biodiversity, especially in old-growth forests. We assessed the importance of 10 forest attributes and old-growth for Psychidae (Lepidoptera) species and communities....

Climate-induced changes in the phenotypic plasticity of the Heath Fritillary, Melitaea athalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Edit JUHÁSZ, Zsolt VÉGVÁRI, János P. TÓTH, Katalin PECSENYE, Zoltán VARGA

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 104-112, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.013

Recently a large number of studies have reported an increase in the variability in the climate, which affects behavioural and physiological adaptations in a broad range of organisms. Specifically, insects may be especially sensitive to climatic fluctuations, as their physiology and life history traits, like those of other ectotherms, are predominantly affected by environmental factors. Here we aimed to investigate climate-induced changes in several morphometric measures of the Heath Fritillary in North-Eastern Hungary, which is a highly diverse transitional area. During this study we tested the following hypotheses: (i) climate affects genitalia and...

Influence of natal host on parasitism by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

Francisco BEITIA, Erik VALENCIA, Bernat PERIS, Luis DE PEDRO, Josep D. ASÍS, José TORMOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 99-103, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.012

Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is sold commercially as a biocontrol agent of filth flies, including the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). For this reason, S. cameroni is mass-reared for inundative releases to control harmful flies. However, the mass-rearing protocols include very little information on the influence of natal host on subsequent host selection by parasitoids with more than one potential host as in the genus Spalangia. Here, we report on the use of S. cameroni against M. domestica. The S. cameroni were reared using Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann...

Book review: Smith D.A.S. 2014: African Queens and their Kin. A Darwinian Odyssey.


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 98, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.011

Smith D.A.S. 2014: African Queens and their Kin. A Darwinian Odyssey. Brambleby Books, Tauton, Somerset, 848 pp. ISBN 9781908241153. Price GBP 90.00.

Efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for detection of Scolytinae species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Russian Far East


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 84-97, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.010

Traps baited with plant volatiles and/or bark beetle pheromones have been used to survey for exotic and potentially invasive bark and wood-boring beetles in North America since the mid-1990s. Recent discoveries of sex and aggregation pheromones in the Cerambycidae offer means of improving detection rates of longhorn beetles, but little is known of their effects on detection of bark and ambrosia beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of host volatile trap lures for survey and detection of Scolytinae species and whether that efficacy was affected by the addition of longhorn beetle pheromones. More than 12,000...

Identification and expression pattern analysis of chemosensory receptor genes in the Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) antennae

Tofael AHMED, Tian-Tao ZHANG, Zhen-Ying WANG, Kang-Lai HE, Shu-Xiong BAI

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 76-83, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.009

Macrocentrus cingulum is an important polyembryonic endoparasitic wasp that attacks larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) and the European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Hübner). Parasitoids use antennae as the main sensory organ to recognize herbivore-induced plant volatiles as host searching cues. The antennal olfaction proteins, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) are involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway as a sensory neuron response. In the present study, we constructed a cDNA library from the male and female antennae for identifying the olfaction-related genes in M....

Does one size suit all? Dung pad size and ball production by Scarabaeus sacer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 70-75, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.008

Large, ball rolling dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are competitively dominant and can strongly influence community succession in dung pads. Ball production by Scarabaeus sacer Linnaeus was recorded in the Kizilirmak Delta on the Black Sea coast of Turkey by using artificial dung pads from 125 g to 2,000 g. Utilisation of pads across the 16-fold range of pad sizes demonstrated behavioural variation that may reduce intraspecies competition. Ball production was highly concentrated, with 66 balls (61%) produced from 8 pads of the 3 largest pad sizes, which may be related to chemical attraction between males and females. Ball...

Effects of habitat and landscape features on grassland Orthoptera on floodplains in the lower reaches of the Tisza River Basin

Attila TORMA, Miklós BOZSÓ

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 60-69, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.007

The Tisza River Basin is an important area as it is a green corridor in which there are highly endangered habitats and a high level of biodiversity. The patterns in the species richness of invertebrates and the environmental conditions affecting these patterns are poorly studied in the grassy habitats in the lower reaches of the Tisza River Basin. The present study focuses on the effects of flooding, habitat and landscape features on the species richness of orthopterans at 24 grassland sites in two different landscapes. The relations between the explanatory variables and the pattern of diversity of orthopterans with different life-history traits were...

Tendency and consequences of superparasitism for the parasitoid Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in parasitizing a new laboratory host, Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

Hilal TUNCA, Maurane BURADINO, Etty-Ambre COLOMBEL, Elisabeth TABONE

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 51-59, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.006

The tendency for self-superparasitism and it's effects on the quality of the parasitoid Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in parasitizing a new laboratory host, Philosamia ricini (Danovan) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were investigated. In this study, female parasitoids of various ages (1-, 3- and 5-day-old) were tested individually. Parasitoids were provided with 1-day-old P. ricini eggs at ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 host eggs per wasp. The tendency to superparasitize was dependent on the female's age and host density. Five-day-old females showed a strong tendency to superparasitize at low host densities....

Mating alters the rate of development of ovarioles in the ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 44-50, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.005

The influence of female mating status on ovarian development of the ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was investigated under laboratory conditions. We assessed the extent to which ovariole development was affected by mating and for that we initially created a base line by observing age specific ovariole development. Results show that the number of follicles in each ovariole increased with the age of both virgin and mated females up to the age of 3 days, thereafter, no increase in number of follicles was recorded. Ovariole width also increased with age in both virgin and mated females up to 4 days, thereafter,...

Predation by Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Influence of prey age/size and predator's intraspecific interactions

Juliana DURÁN PRIETO, Vincenzo TROTTA, Paolo FANTI, Cristina CASTAÑÉ, Donatella BATTAGLIA

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 37-43, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.004

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important predator of pests of horticultural crops and here its ability as a predator of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is addressed for the first time. The percentage predation of the different aphid instars and the number partially consumed were studied. Our results, obtained using choice and no-choice tests, revealed that M. pygmaeus caught and consumed more young than later instars of A. pisum, which confirms results of previous studies using other species of aphids. We also studied the interactions between predators (male/female) foraging in the same patch....

Response of the reduviid bug, Rhynocoris marginatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) to six different species of cotton pests


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 29-36, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.003

Abstract. In Indian agro-ecosystems Rhynocoris marginatus (F.) is one of the most abundant predatory arthropods and feeds on a wide range of insect pests. We investigated the responses of R. marginatus to six species of cotton pests: Spodoptera litura (F.), Sylepta derogata (F.), Pericallia ricini (F.), Mylabris indica (Thunberg), Mylabris pustulata (Thunberg) and Dysdercus...

A revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Coelioxys (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Australia

Léo Correia da ROCHA-FILHO

Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 9-28, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.002

The Australian species of the genus Coelioxys Latreille are revised. Six species are recognized: Coelioxys albolineata Cockerell, 1905; Coelioxys froggatti Cockerell, 1911; Coelioxys reginae Cockerell, 1905; Coelioxys weinlandi Schulz, 1904 and two new species: Coelioxys julia sp. n. and Coelioxys tasmaniana sp. n. Three names are synonymized: Coelioxys biroi Friese, 1909 syn. n. and Coelioxys albolineata darwiniensis Cockerell, 1929 syn. n. under Coelioxys albolineata, and Coelioxys victoriae Rayment, 1935 syn. n. under Coelioxys froggatti. Species descriptions...

Fine fluorescent powder marking study of dispersal in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 113: 1-8, 2016 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2016.001

A novel method was used to study dispersal in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), under epidemic conditions (rapidly increasing population density) in the ©umava National Park. Infested spruce logs were coated with a fine fluorescent powder and the passively marked emerging beetles were captured in pheromone baited traps located at various distances from these logs. The number of marked beetles captured decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the release point. The sex ratio of the bark beetles was more female biased the further they were recaptured from the logs, being 57% and 60% at distances of up to 50 and 100 m,...