EJE, vol. 111 (2014), issue 4

Sex ratio distortion in the Nesolynx thymus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ecto-pupal parasitoid of uzifly, Exorista sorbillans (Diptera: Tachinidae)

Bandekodigenahalli M. PRAKASH, Aswathaiah PRATHIMA, Hoolageri C. HUCHESH, Hemagirigowda RAVIKUMAR, Shankaranarayan SAMPATHKUMAR, Hosagavi P. PUTTARAJU

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 453-456, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.059

The reproductive alterations induced by maternally inherited α-proteo-bacteria Wolbachia to their hosts is a well-documented phenomenon. In Nesolynx thymus, a gregarious hymenopterous ecto-pupal parasitoid of the uzifly, Exorista sorbillans, diagnostic PCR assay using specific primers revealed the presence of Wolbachia. Following genetic crossing experiments, we observed a female biased sex ratio of 1 : 9.5 at 25°C and 1 : 3 male to female ratio when the populations were exposed to heat shock 33°C for six hours. Furthermore, we found infection polymorphism, where female parasitoids are...

Identifications of cytochrome c and Apaf-1 and their mRNA expressions under heat stress in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Lin Jie ZHANG, Jing Fei HUANG, Feng CHEN, Zhen Yang YU, Zhao Li WU, Gang WU

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 457-468, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.064

To study the component and gene expressions of apoptosome in the mitochondrial-associated apoptotic pathway, cytochrome c and Apaf-1 were identified in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, collected from Fuzhou, China. The full-length cDNA of cytochrome c comprised 873 bp, including a 327 bp ORF encoding a putative protein of 108 amino acids. Two full-length cDNAs of Apaf-1, Apaf-1a and Apaf-1b, were identified. Apaf-1a shared the same region of 5'-UTR (5'-untranslated region) (172 bp) and ORF (4,647 bp) of cDNA, but was 73 bp longer than Apaf-1b in the region of 3'-UTR of the...

Chromosomal characteristics and evolutionary relationships of the Palearctic black fly Simulium carthusiense (Diptera: Simuliidae)

Peter H. ADLER, Gunther SEITZ

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 469-474, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.066

The giant, polytene chromosomes of Simulium carthusiense Grenier & Dorier, 1959 were mapped, and all rearrangements were resolved relative to the standard banding sequence for the S. vernum group. The species is chromosomally cohesive from Austria to Spain, and is characterized by a chromocenter, two unique fixed inversions, 10 unique autosomal polymorphisms, and undifferentiated sex chromosomes. Rare individuals (3%) have two types of supernumerary chromosomes, representing the third example of a simuliid species that carries two different supernumeraries in the same individuals. Band-sequence comparisons with chromosomal outgroups...

Cryptic diversity and signs of mitochondrial introgression in the Agrilus viridis species complex (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 475-486, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.072

The jewel beetle genus Agrilus (Buprestidae), with approximately 2880 recognized species, is taxonomically challenging due to the great similarity of species. An example of taxonomic ambiguity is the Agrilus viridis species group, particularly the viridis complex that comprises many varieties differing both ecologically and morphologically. The status of these varieties has remained largely unresolved and no consensus exists on their status. We used geometric morphometrics in combination with the DNA barcode marker sequence in order to evaluate the possible distinction among populations of A. viridis feeding on Alnus,...

Effects of cold acclimation, cooling rate and heat stress on cold tolerance of the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 487-494, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.063

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cold acclimation, cooling rate and heat stress on supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of the potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Supercooling points (SCP) of first and last instar larvae, prepupae and pupae were -21.8, -16.9, -18.9 and -18.0°C, respectively. Cold acclimation (1-week at 0 and 5°C) did not affect SCPs of acclimated last instar larvae, prepupae and pupae. LT50s (lower lethal temperature for 50% mortality) for first and last instar larvae, prepupae and pupae were -15.5, -12.4, -17.9 and -16.0°C, respectively....

Comparison of the developmental time of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on five different lepidopteran host species and its relationship with digestive enzymes


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 495-500, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.069

Bracon (Habrobracon) hebetor Say is a polyphagous parasitoid of lepidopteran larvae, including those of the family Pyralidae. There are many reports that this parasitoid attacks the larvae of stored product and field crop pests. However, there is little information on the biological parameters of this parasitoid attacking different lepidopteran hosts or the effect of the hosts on the digestive enzymes of the parasitoid. Hence, in the current study the effect of different lepidopteran hosts, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia kuehniella, Helicoverpa armigera and...

Growth and development in a lepidopteran with variable instar number, Pseudocoremia suavis (Geometridae), under standard rearing conditions and when parasitised by Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Emma I. BARRACLOUGH, Elisabeth P.J. BURGESS, Aliesha M. KEAN, Louise A. MALONE

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 501-511, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.062

Though extra instars are often associated with poor conditions and thought to be a compensation for a low growth rate, the reasons why they are necessary, and for variable instar number existing under standard rearing conditions, are not yet clear. In standard rearing conditions, approximately half of Pseudocoremia suavis larvae had five instars (Type I larvae), and half six instars (Type II larvae). Type II larvae took longer to pupate and reached higher pupal weights than Type I larvae. The extra instar was not related to sexual size dimorphism; Type II larvae were not more likely to be females. Females of both Types pupated later than males...

Female fertility in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is maximized by polyandry, but reduced by continued male presence


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 513-520, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.067

Many species of lady beetles are highly promiscuous and females mate repeatedly even when not sperm-limited. We quantified female reproductive success and progeny development in Hippodamia convergens using a laboratory experiment designed to test whether (1) male novelty (different males), (2) male mating status (virgin, non-virgin) or (3) opportunities for female mate choice, would increase female fitness compared to a similar number of matings with the same male. Daily access to novel males, regardless of their mating status, increased the egg fertility of females, but not their fecundity. Opportunities for mate choice did not improve any...

Development and thermal requirements of the Nearctic predator Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Geocoridae) reared at constant and alternating temperatures and fed on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 521, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.074

Knowledge of the optimal temperatures for development and survival of biological control agents is essential for efficient mass-rearing and introduction of natural enemies in augmentative biological control programs. We studied the effect of constant and alternating temperatures on development and survival of immature stages and the sex ratio at emergence of adults of the Nearctic generalist predator Geocoris punctipes (Say). We also determined its thermal requirements. They were reared in climatic chambers at alternating (21/11°C, 24/18°C, 27/21°C and 30/26°C ± 1°C) and constant temperatures (16.8°C,...

Rarity of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) in Southern Africa correlates with their phylogeny and trophic habits, but not body size

Monica PITZALIS, Valentina AMORE, Francesca MONTALTO, Luca LUISELLI, Marco A. BOLOGNA

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 529-535, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.058

Ecologists have identified several correlates of biological rarity in animals. Among the various correlates identified so far, three are explored in this paper: (a) abundance is correlated with absolute body size in animals; (b) phylogenetically primitive taxa are overrepresented in samples of rare species; (c) more specialized species are rarer than less specialized species. Here we use Namibian blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) as a model system for exploring these issues. We used data from five field expeditions, which resulted in the identification of 891 beetles belonging to 76 species collected from 191 sites. 13% of the species accounted...

Application of the mean individual biomass of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to assess the assemblage successions along areas of recent glacier retreats


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 537-541, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.071

Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. Traditionally, invertebrate succession along the glacier forelands has been spatially and temporally described by the following predictors: species richness, diversity/similarity indices and species traits. In this paper another approach is used and applied to carabid beetle assemblages in two alpine glacier forelands. It utilizes mean individual biomass (MIB), which is considered by several authors to be a good indicator of habitat successional stages. MIB increased with time since deglaciation and this is related to species turnover...

Generalist-specialist continuum and life history traits of Central European butterflies (Lepidoptera) - are we missing a part of the picture?


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 543-553, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.060

Abstract. Analyzing life history traits of butterfly communities and faunas frequently reveals a generalist-specialist continuum as the main gradient, where species using wide arrays of resources, with good dispersal ability and fast development are distinguished from those using specialised resources, having limited dispersal ability and developing slowly. To ascertain the validity of the generalist-specialist approach for an intermediately species-rich Central European fauna, we analyzed ten life history traits for 136 species of butterflies currently occurring in the Czech Republic, using principal correspondence analysis (PCA) and...

Species composition and dynamics in abundance of migrant and sedentary butterflies (Lepidoptera) at Gibraltar during the spring period


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 555-559, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.057

In order to understand patterns of abundances of migratory Lepidoptera in southernmost Europe and contrast this with those of sedentary species, we studied butterflies surveyed along transects during three spring migration seasons at the Rock of Gibraltar. Overall, 2508 butterflies belonging to 19 species were recorded. Of these, the four most numerous species accounted for almost 88% of all individuals recorded. These were the migratory Clouded Yellow Colias croceus, Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta and Painted Lady Vanessa cardui, and the sedentary Common Blue Polyommatus icarus. There was a significant correlation between...

Fungi associated with the red-haired bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the forest-steppe zone in eastern Ukraine

Kateryna DAVYDENKO, Rimvydas VASAITIS, Valentyna MESHKOVA, Audrius MENKIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 561-565, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.070

The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the fungal community associated with the red-haired bark beetle (Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius) in two plantations of Pinus sylvestris L. located in the Kharkiv and Luhansk regions (ca. 250 km apart) in the forest-steppe zone in eastern Ukraine. In each plantation, 48 beetles were collected from butts of living trees and 48 beetles from stems of fallen trees, i.e., a total of 96. Half of the beetles from each site were used for culturing fungi and the other half for direct sequencing the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA). Thirty distinct fungal taxa...

Book review: Chyb S. & Gompel N. 2013: The Atlas of Drosophila Morphology: Wild-type and Classical Mutants.


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 566, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.075

Chyb S. & Gompel N. 2013: The Atlas of Drosophila Morphology: Wild-type and Classical Mutants. First edition. Academic Press, London and Waltham (MA), 224 pp. ISBN 978-0-12-384688-4 (hard cover). Price USD 134.00.

Determining the instar of a weevil larva (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a parsimonious method

Adrien MERVILLE, Agnès VALLIER, Samuel VENNER, Aurélie SIBERCHICOT, David FOUCHET, Abdelaziz HEDDI, Marie-Claude BEL-VENNER

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 567-573, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.056

Tracking the larval development of an insect is important in both applied and basic ecology. Yet, it is difficult to discriminate between the different larval instars of holometabolous insect species, particularly in the field. The methods currently available are of limited use as they rely on an a priori determined size distribution of every immature instar and are irrelevant whenever the distributions of two instars actually overlap. We developed a model that computes, for a given species, the most probable instar of a larva based on its individual head capsule width and the size distribution of the last larval instar. The model presented here is...

Variation in the shape of the wings and taxonomy of Eurasian populations of the Calopteryx splendens complex (Odonata: Calopterygidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 575-583, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.073

We used geometric morphometrics to determine variation in the morphology of the forewings of individuals in 20 populations of Calopteryx splendens s.l. in Eurasia and related these to the circum-specific taxonomy of this taxon. We found differences in shape, with the largest and smallest centroid size of the wings in adjacent northern (orientalis) and western (intermedia) populations in Iran, respectively, so isolation and relationship are not necessarily determined by distance, but often associated with the stream basin inhabited. The variation in wing shape, however, was much greater. with Populations at the eastern edge of the...

More evidence for an admixture of the Hyles euphorbiae complex's main lineages in Mediterranean Europe (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 584-587, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.065

The populations of the Hyles euphorbiae complex on Crete and the Dodecanese Islands have been described as an endemic species, Hyles "cretica". Alternatively, they are thought to be of hybrid origin from the complex's two main lineages, the European H. euphorbiae and African H. tithymali, because of their intermediate morphology. That they belong to a discrete taxon is supported by the fact that all the recent samples analyzed belong to an endemic mitochondrial haplotype cluster; however, this cluster is so close to the tithymali cluster that it might also be regarded as a sublineage of H. tithymali....

Pollen analysis of the crop contents of adult Oedemeridae (Coleoptera) in Bulgaria


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 588-593, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.068

Pollen analysis of crop samples was used to identify the food sources of species of beetles of the family Oedemeridae in Bulgaria. A total of 21 species and subspecies were examined; pollen was present in the crops of 18 of the species. Our study is the first to provide information on the food sources of four species and subspecies: Chrysanthia varipes varipes, Anogcodes seladonius turcicus, A. ruficollis and Oedemera flavicans. New data on food sources for many of the other species studied was obtained and feeding on pollen of gymnosperms and honeydew by some of the species was confirmed. Possible...

Discovery of the first European parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (4): 594-596, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.061

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, native to Asia is a devastating pest of ash in North America and European Russia. There are several parasitoids of A. planipennis recorded in Asia and North America, but none previously in Europe and European Russia. Eighty two specimens of the ectoparasitoid Spathius polonicus Niezabitowski (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) (23 adults, 56 larvae and three pupae) were found in the remains of A. planipennis larvae at five localities in Moscow Province in October 2013 - May 2014. S. polonicus is rare but widely distributed and mainly a Western Palaearctic species. It seems...