EJE, vol. 111 (2014), issue 3

Unbalanced sex ratio and triploidy in the genus Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Dynastidae) in the Lesser Antilles: An example of parthenogenesis on islands?


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 313-319, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.048

Sex ratio and chromosomes studies were performed on six of the seven species of genus Cyclocephala present in the Lesser Antilles. Most sex ratios based on light trapping are skewed, with a frequent, but not exclusive, strong excess of females. These unbalances vary from species to species and island to island for the same species. Comparing old (seventies) and recent captures, the imbalances seem to increase with time. All of the 72 karyotyped males were diploid: 20,XY. Of the 15 females studied, one (C. dominicensis) was triploid: 30,XXX, a condition that only occurs in parthenogenetic species of beetles. We conclude that parthenogenesis...

The early evolutionary history of neo-sex chromosomes in Neotropical grasshoppers, Boliviacris noroestensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 321-327, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.047

Neo-sex chromosomes are an important component of chromosome variation in Orthoptera, particularly South American Melanoplinae species, which have proven to be outstanding experimental model system to study the mechanism of sex chromosome evolution in this group of insects. In terms of their origin, most derived sex chromosome mechanisms involve a Robertsonian fusion (i.e. translocation) between the ancestral X chromosome and an autosome. In the grasshopper, Boliviacris noroestensis Ronderos & Cigliano (1990) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae), our results point to a small degree of differentiation (conserved homology between the XR arm...

Chromosomal mapping of two Mariner-like elements in the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata (Orthoptera: Acrididae) reveals enrichment in euchromatin


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 329-334, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.052

The occurrence of transposable elements (TEs) is a ubiquitous characteristic of eukaryotic genomes, and these sequences are highly abundant in some species. Due to their large genomes, grasshoppers (Orthoptera) appear to be potentially good candidates in terms of having genomes that harbour considerable numbers of TEs. In the present study, we have investigated the occurrence of two Mariner-like elements (MLEs) within the genome of the grasshopper, Abracris flavolineata (De Geer, 1773), describing their distribution in both the A (i.e. standard or normal) complement and B chromosomes. PCR amplification followed by cloning and sequencing...

Bioluminescent assay for evaluating antimicrobial activity in insect haemolymph

Libor VOJTEK, Pavel DOBE©, Ender BÜYÜKGÜZEL, Janne ATOSUO, Pavel HYR©L

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 335-340, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.045

We describe an antibacterial assay based on bioluminescence of two Gram negative bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens and transformed Escherichia coli, which can be used as a real-time measurement of antibacterial activity in insect haemolymph. This method is based on the production of the bioluminescence signal depending on the viability of bacterial cells. We observed a significant rapid dose-dependent decrease in bioluminescence using both bacterial species, and Bombyx mori or Galleria mellonella haemolymph, which was confirmed by the decrease in bacterial viability determined by plating. The humoral origin of the antibacterial...

Reproductive performance of Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under various light intensities, wavelengths and photoperiods


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 341-347, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.053

Cocccinellid beetles are largely diurnal species that are known to utilize visual cues in foraging and reproduction and to respond in specific ways to various light conditions. The present study evaluated the mating behavior and reproductive performance of Propylea japonica (Thunberg), a species indigenous to Asia, under various conditions of light intensity, photoperiod, and wavelength. Video-recording was used to continuously observe mating pairs for 24 h and a night vision system was employed to record nocturnal activity. Subsequently, males were removed and eggs were collected from females for 10 days and held under the same photic...

Differences between beetle communities colonizing cattle and horse dung


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 349-355, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.050

Piles of fresh cow and horse dung were placed in a pasture in Dziarny in north-east Poland. The differences between the beetle communities colonizing both types of dung at various stages of succession were analyzed. Beetles were sampled 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after placing the piles of dung in the pasture. A total of 5 343 individuals belonging to 125 species and 10 families were collected in 24 samples. None of the species of beetles collected colonized exclusively one type of dung. Several taxa showed a clear preference for cow or horse dung. Beetle succession proceeded faster in horse dung and there were significant differences in the dominant...

Life cycle, seasonal and interannual polymorphism in a monoecious aphid Cinara mordvilkoi (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 357-362, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.051

This paper presents the first description of the life cycle of Cinara mordvilkoi and alary dimorphism of its males. There are 3 phases in its life cycle and during the course of a year 10 generations of parthenogenetic females are produced. The durations of development of subsequent generations over three years were recorded. C. mordvilkoi was observed to change its feeding position on its host from leaves to roots throughout the year. In the third year of this study both winged and wingless males were recorded. The fundatrix, oviparous female and the apterous and winged males are described.

Stage specific consumption and utilization of aphids, conspecific and heterospecific eggs by two species of Coccinella (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Bhupendra KUMAR, Mahadev BISTA, Geetanjali MISHRA, OMKAR

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 363-369, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.046

The nutritive quality of aphids, conspecific and heterospecific eggs as food for ladybirds is a controversial issue. If ladybirds find aphids more palatable than eggs then they are more likely to efficiently exploit and be biocontrol agents of aphids. If eggs of conspecific or heterospecific ladybirds are more palatable than aphids these biocontrol agents may either impede aphid pest suppression or become a threat to other species of ladybirds. Thus, prior to formulating predatory guilds of ladybirds the nutritive quality of their eggs compared to that of the target aphid needs to be determined. In this regards, the present study evaluates the nutritive...

Preference and performance of the larvae of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on three species of European oaks


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 371-378, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.039

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), causes enormous damage to broadleaved forests in the northern hemisphere where it frequently defoliates large areas of forest. Since outbreaks begin in oak forests, its most suitable habitat, we determined the preference and performance of gypsy moth larvae when reared on three species of native oaks: sessile oak, Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.; Turkey oak, Q. cerris L.; and Hungarian oak, Q. frainetto (Ten.). Leaf expansion and selected physical and chemical characteristics of the oak leaves were also measured. The shortest development time and highest relative...

Biology of Rhembobius quadrispinus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): Pupal parasitoid of saprophagous species of syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 379-385, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.040

Little is known about the life cycle of Rhembobius parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Known host records are mainly from saprophagous species of hoverflies of the tribe Eristalini (Diptera: Syrphidae), whose larvae develop in a wide range of aquatic and semi-aquatic breeding sites that are rich in microbial decay. We present an account of the biology and important details of the life cycle of the pupal parasitoid R. quadrispinus in both natural and controlled conditions. Host suitability, the influence of host pupal age and age of the female parasitoid on her production of progeny was evaluated in laboratory tests. Our results...

Numerical response of Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) preying on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato crops

Juan A. SANCHEZ, Michelangelo LA-SPINA, Alfredo LACASA

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 387-395, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.041

Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an effective predator of pests of tomato crops and a promising biocontrol agent of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this study was to determine the numerical response of N. tenuis to different levels of abundance of T. absoluta and its potential for controlling it when infesting tomato crops. The effects of infesting plants with either 0.2 or 2 larvae of T. absoluta and releasing either 2 or 0 adults of N. tenuis per plant were assayed in a complete factorial randomised-block design with 3 repeats in...

Efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for detection of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Russian Far East


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 397-406, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.049

The efficacy of various combinations of pheromones and plant volatile lures for detection of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in traps was tested in field bioassays in a mixed coniferous-deciduous forest near Vladivostok in the Russian Far East in 2009 and 2010. Traps detected 30 species (490 specimens) in 2009 and 23 species (182 specimens) in 2010. Overall, 38 longhorn beetle species were detected, with 15 species common to both years. Species composition differed among lure treatments, but the number of species detected with any single lure did not vary significantly among lures (12-16 species per lure in 2009; 3-10 species per lure in...

Recorded and potential distributions on the iberian peninsula of speciesof Lepidoptera listed in the Habitats Directive


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 407-415, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.042

Abstract. Using data on the known Iberian distributions of 10 species of Lepidoptera listed in the Habitats Directive referenced to the 10 × 10 km UTM grid, we determined their potential distributions and their relationships with selected bioclimatic factors associated with mean temperature and precipitation using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA). Scores for Specialization and Marginality were determined in order to evaluate the relationships between the predictions of the model and climatic factors. The number of squares on the Iberian Peninsula in which the species are recorded and those squares predicted to be favourable...

Age-related changes in the frequency of harassment-avoidance behaviourof virgin females of the small copper butterfly, Lycaena phlaeas (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Jun-Ya IDE

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 417-420, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.037

Mated females of the small copper butterfly Lycaena phlaeas avoid harassment by males by closing their wings and concealing themselves when in the proximity of a con-specific butterfly. This wing-closing behaviour is less frequently exhibited by virgin females that are two days old or older (i.e., potentially receptive) than by mated females. During the first 2 days after emergence, females of L. phlaeas are sexually immature and unreceptive. To determine whether recently emerged virgin females try to avoid male harassment, age-related changes in the frequency of harassment-avoidance behaviour of virgin females were investigated. On the...

Comparison of the exotic and native ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green areas at inland, coastal and insular sites in Spain


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 421-428, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.044

Currently the introduction and spread of invasive species is an issue of great concern. To effectively manage this problem it is essential to know what constitute invasion hotspots. In this respect, the role of urban green areas in the conservation of biodiversity is a controversial matter. These areas may either favour colonization by alien species or shelter species of high conservation value. We evaluated the influence of location (island, coastal or inland) on the exotic and native ant fauna recorded in 27 urban green areas in Spain. A forward-stepwise discriminant analysis revealed differences between these locations in terms of the composition...

Patterns of acoustic and morphometric variation in species of genus Tettigettalna (Hemiptera: Cicadidae): Sympatric populations show unexpected differences

Raquel MENDES, Vera L. NUNES, José A. QUARTAU, Paula C. SIMÕES

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 429-441, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.054

Tettigettalna (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is a genus of small sized cicadas occurring in south-western Europe, which consists of a complex of sibling species that are morphologically difficult to distinguish from each other but their calling songs can be used as the main character for their identification. These sibling species may sometimes occur in sympatry, therefore, this genus is a suitable model for addressing questions on isolation mechanisms and recognition processes. For this study, we selected T. argentata (the species with the broadest distribution) and the three other species of Tettigettalna (T. mariae, T. estrellae...

Book review: O'Toole C. 2013: Bees A Natural History


Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 442, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.055

O'Toole C. 2013: Bees A Natural History. Firefly Books, New York and Ontario, 240 pp., 125 colour photographs, 3 appendixes. ISBN 978-177085-208-2. Price GBP 30.00.

Rearing of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Elodie BELZ, Céline E. GÉNEAU, Moritz FÜRST, Oliver BALMER, Pius ANDERMATT, Lukas PFIFFNER, Léon WESTERD, Henryk LUKA

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 443-447, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.043

Establishing continuous and reliable colonies of pest-parasitoid systems in the laboratory is an essential requirement for carrying out manipulative experiments on biological control. Here we describe in detail the rearing protocols that we optimized for the efficient rearing of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae and its key parasitoid Microplitis mediator.

Suitable food plants for mass rearing of the short-horn grasshopper Oxya hyla hyla (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Subhasish GHOSH, Parimalendu HALDAR, Dipak K. MANDAL

Eur. J. Entomol. 111 (3): 448-452, 2014 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2014.038

Acridids could be an alternative source of protein for feeding to livestock as large numbers can be produced by rearing them on suitable food plants under optimum environmental conditions. The aim of the present study was to find a suitable food plant for the mass culture of the short-horn grasshopper Oxya hyla hyla (Serville). Food consumption and utilization, growth (growth rate, average daily growth, specific growth rate and wet weight gain), survival and life span of this insect reared on Sorghum halepense, Cyanodon dactylon and a mixture of these two plants were determined. The result revealed that the food utilization, growth...