EJE, vol. 107 (2010), issue 3

A review of Fennoscandian arthropods living on and in snow

Sigmund HÅGVAR

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 281-298, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.037

A permanent snow cover for several months is typical for large parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland. Snow layers thicker than about 20 cm insulate the soil surface and stabilize the ground temperature close to 0°C. Many ground-living invertebrates are active at this temperature in the subnivean air space. From this "base camp", some invertebrates migrate upwards to use the snow as a substrate. The intranivean fauna consists of springtails (Collembola) and mites (Acari) that are small enough to move within the narrow pores between snow crystals. The supranivean fauna consists of various invertebrates that are active on the snow surface....

The effect of host plant and isolation on the genetic structure of phytophagous insects: A preliminary study on a bruchid beetle


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 299-304, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.038

Genetic differentiation is a consequence of the combination of drift and restriction in gene flow between populations due to barriers to dispersal, or selection against individuals resulting from inter-population matings. In phytophagous insects, local adaptation to different kinds of host plants can sometimes lead to reproductive isolation and thus to genetic structuring, or even to speciation. Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a bean bruchid specialized on beans of the Phaseolus vulgaris group, attacking both wild and domesticated forms of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus. This study reveals that the genetic structure of populations...

Genetic structure and phenotypic diversity of two northern populations of Cheilosia aff. longula (Diptera: Syrphidae) has implications for evolution and conservation

Vesna MILANKOV, Ljubinka FRANCUSKI, Jasmina LUDO©KI, Gunilla STÅHLS, Ante VUJIĆ

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 305-315, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.039

The genetic structure and phenotypic diversity of two populations of Cheilosia aff. longula (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Lapland, Finland, were examined using DNA sequencing, protein electrophoresis, and geometric morphometrics. The morphological identification of the species were verified using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mtDNA), and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2 rDNA), and comparing the corresponding sequences of Cheilosia aff. longula and the closely related C. longula. Two and three haplotypes of the genes COI mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA were identified...

Kinetic activity of the sex chromosomes of Mormidea paupercula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

Pablo Javier REBAGLIATI, Liliana María MOLA

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 317-323, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.040

In Mormidea paupercula (n = 6 + XY in males), the presence of a CMA3-bright band in the telomeric regions on both sex chromosomes allowed the analysis of the kinetic activity of the sex univalents and XY pseudobivalent at the first and second meiotic divisions, respectively. The separation of the sister chromatids of the sex chromosomes occurs from a pair of telomeric regions (with or without a band), with opposite telomeric regions remaining associated with each other at meiosis I; the behaviour of both sex chromosomes differs, on the X chromosome both telomeric regions are similarly active, while on the Y chromosome the telomeric...

A molecular phylogeny of Polyommatus s. str. and Plebicula based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 325-336, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.041

The phylogenetic relationships of the subgenera Polyommatus and Plebicula, within the Palaearctic butterfly genus Polyommatus, were inferred from a combined analysis of the nuclear marker ITS2 and the barcoding section of the mitochondrial gene COI. Eight major clades were recovered within Polyommatus s. l., which correspond closely to subgenera based on traditional systematics and are of late Pliocene to early Pleistocene origin. Extraordinary chromosomal evolution occurred independently in three of these clades. The disputed position of several species formerly placed in the subgenus Plebicula is...

Relationship between the natural duration of diapause and post-diapause reproduction in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Xiao-Tang WEI, Yu-Chen ZHOU, Hai-Jun XIAO, Xiao-Ping WANG, Zhen-Min BAO, Fang-Sen XUE

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 337-340, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.042

The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly undergoes an imaginal summer and winter diapause in the soil; adult emergence is spread over several months to more than 2 years, with prolonged diapause occurring in certain adults under natural conditions. The relationship between natural duration of diapause and postdiapause reproduction was investigated at 25°C under 12L: 12D photoperiod. The mean body weight of postdiapause adults with the long diapause duration of 21 months was significantly greater than with the shorter diapause duration of 5, 11 and 17 months. The longevity and mean total egg production of the postdiapause adult females with...

Parental age at mating affects reproductive attributes of the aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Coelophora saucia (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

OMKAR, Satyendra K. SINGH, Geetanjali MISHRA

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 341-347, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.043

Ageing and its affect on life attributes have not been widely explored in ladybirds. The present study investigates the influence of female and male age at mating on the reproductive attributes of the ladybird beetle, Coelophora saucia (Mulsant). All reproductive attributes, viz. fecundity, percentage egg hatch, pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods were found to be influenced by the ages of both females and males at mating. This is unlike the results of previous studies on ladybirds, where male age was found to influence only percentage egg hatch. The influence of male age at mating on fecundity and reproductive periods...

Predator dependent mimetic complexes: Do passerine birds avoid Central European red-and-black Heteroptera?


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 349-355, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.044

True bugs are generally considered to be well protected against bird predation. Sympatric species that have similar warning coloration are supposed to form a functional Müllerian mimetic complex avoided by visually oriented avian predators. We have tested whether these assumptions hold true for four species of European red-and-black heteropterans, viz. Pyrrhocoris apterus, Lygaeus equestris, Spilostethus saxatilis, and Graphosoma lineatum. We found that individual species of passerine birds differ in their responses towards particular bug species. Great tits (Parus major) avoided all of...

Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae): An East Asian pest of elms (Ulmus spp.) invading Europe


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 357-367, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.045

An invasive sawfly Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi, 1939, which originates from East Asia, has colonized elms (Ulmus spp.) in Austria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the Ukraine, at least since 2003. In Europe, the larvae can completely defoliate native and non-native elm trees and may cause at least partial dieback. Field observations indicate that elms are infested independent of their age and site characteristics. The life cycle of A. leucopoda is described based on material reared in Hokkaido, Japan. Parthenogenetic reproduction, short life cycle of summer generations and the ability to produce four generations per year...

Weather factors affecting the male mate-locating tactics of the small copper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Jun-Ya IDE

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 369-376, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.046

Males of the small copper butterfly, Lycaena phlaeas daimio, exhibit two mate-locating tactics: patrolling and perching. Field investigations were conducted to determine the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the mate-locating behaviour of male L. phlaeas. Patrolling was often observed when light intensity was high. Perching was performed throughout the day regardless of environmental conditions, but the chasing of passing insects increased at high light intensities. The activity patterns of the males were not affected by those of the females. The thoracic temperatures of patrolling males were lower than those of perching males under...

Descriptions of larvae of Megadytes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae): The subgenera Trifurcitus and Megadytes s. str., ground plan of chaetotaxy of the genus and phylogenetic analysis

Mariano C. MICHAT

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 377-392, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.047

The three larval instars of Megadytes (M.) carcharias Griffini and M. (Trifurcitus) fallax (Aubé) are described and illustrated in detail for the first time, with an emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy of the cephalic capsule, head appendages, legs, last abdominal segment and urogomphi. The ground plan of chaetotaxy of the genus Megadytes Sharp is described and illustrated based on three of the four recognised subgenera. First-instar larvae of Megadytes are characterised by the presence of a large number of additional sensilla on almost every part of the body. Primary chaetotaxy of the subgenera...

Phylogeny and nomenclature of the box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) comb. n., which was recently introduced into Europe (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae: Spilomelinae)

Richard MALLY, Matthias NUSS

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 393-400, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.048

The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) comb. n., is native to India, China, Korea, Japan and the Russian Far East. Its larvae are a serious pest of different species of Buxus. Recently, C. perspectalis was introduced into Europe and first recorded from Germany in 2006. This species has been placed in various spilomeline genera including Palpita Hübner, 1808, Diaphania Hübner, 1818, Glyphodes Guenée, 1854 and the monotypic Neoglyphodes Streltzov, 2008. In order to solve this nomenclatural confusion and to find a reasonable and verifiable generic placement for the box tree moth, the morphology...

Genus-group names of Afrotropical flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae): Annotated catalogue and biogeographical notes


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 401-424, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.049

This paper consists of an up to date annotated catalogue of the Afrotropical genera of Alticinae (Chrysomelidae), with biogeographical notes on the flea beetle fauna occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. The following new synonymies are proposed: Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 (a subgenus of Sanckia Duvivier, 1891) = Brancucciella Medvedev, 1995 syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Dibolosoma Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Halticova Fairmaire, 1898 syn. n.; Podagrica Chevrolat, 1837 = Podagrixena Bechyné, 1968 syn. n.; Aphthona Chevrolat, 1837 = Pseudeugonotes...

Systematics and biogeography of the Indo-Malaysian endemic Neochauliodes sundaicus species-group (Megaloptera: Corydalidae)

Xingyue LIU, Fumio HAYASHI, Oliver S. FLINT, Ding YANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 425-440, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.050

The Neochauliodes sundaicus species-group is newly proposed, containing six species and endemic to Indo-Malaysia. All six species are described and illustrated, including two new species: Neochauliodes parvus Liu, Hayashi & Flint, sp. n. and N. peninsularis Liu, Hayashi & Flint, sp. n. Full species status is given to N. maculatus Stitz, 1914, stat. n. and N. borneensis van der Weele, 1909, stat. n. A cladistic analysis is conducted to reconstruct the species level phylogeny of the N. sundaicus group based on the morphological data. Combining the present morphological phylogeny and historical geography...

A new species group and five new species of the genus Pavania (Acari: Dolichocybidae) associated with insects, with notes on leg chaetotaxy and the distribution of genera


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 441-453, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.051

A new species group and five new species of mites of the genus Pavania Lombardini, 1949 belonging to the family Dolichocybidae (Acari: Heterostigmata) are described from Iran. Pavania gymnopleuri Hajiqanbar & Khaustov sp. n., P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov sp. n. and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov sp. n., represent a new gymnopleuri species group. Two new species are also described in the fusiformis group: P. kamalii Hajiqanbar & Khaustov sp. n. and P. elongata Hajiqanbar & Khaustov sp. n. All new species are associated with scarabaeid and carabid...

A fossil head of an enicocephalomorphan (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from England revisited: Identity of the first fossil species of Enicocephalidae from Europe

Pavel ©TYS

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 455-460, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.052

Pyrenicocephalus jarzembowskii, gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Enicocephalomorpha: Enicocephalidae: Enicocephalinae) from Early Eocene, London Clay, England, Isle of Sheppey, is described and illustrated according to the unique pyritized adult head reported as a larval enicocephalid head by Jarzembowski (1986). The head anatomy of similar and related genera of Enicocephalinae is compared and the close relationship of the new genus to a clade including the extant genera Oncylocotis, Embolorrhinus and Hoplitocoris is suggested, most probably as the sister genus to Hoplitocoris (presently with Afrotropical,...

A comparison of the amino acid profiles of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the social aphid species, Pemphigus spyrothecae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Nathan PIKE

Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 461-463, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.053

The relative proportions of free amino acids as well as the amino acid compositions of hydrolysed unprecipitated peptides and hydrolysed whole carcasses were quantified for two aphid species: the gall-dwelling social aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. The whole-tissue amino acid profiles of the two taxonomically distant species had a surprisingly high level of correspondence. In contrast, when comparing the A. pisum profiles obtained in the current study to those obtained in an earlier study, major differences were identified. It is concluded that there are good prospects for developing an artificial...

ERRATUM: HADDRILL P.R., SHUKER D.M., MAYES S. & MAJERUS M.E.N. 2007: Temporal effects of multiple mating on components of fitness in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 104(3): 393-398.


Eur. J. Entomol. 107 (3): 464, 2010 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2010.054