EJE, vol. 106 (2009), issue 4

Contrasting levels of polymorphism in cross-amplified microsatellites in two endangered xerothermophilous, obligatorily myrmecophilous, butterflies of the genus Phengaris (Maculinea) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 457-469, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.058

We analysed the polymorphism of cross-amplified microsatellite loci in two endangered butterflies of the genus Phengaris, which inhabit warm grasslands. Specimens of P. arion and P. 'rebeli' collected in Poland showed contrasting levels of variability in the investigated loci. All six tested microsatellites were highly variable in P. arion, whereas in P. 'rebeli' one locus was monomorphic and the other four loci showed a rather low level of polymorphism. Genetic differentiation was small or moderate among P. arion populations and high among P. 'rebeli' populations. We hypothesise...

Down-regulation of gene expression between the diapause initiation and maintenance phases of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

George D. YOCUM, Joseph P. RINEHART, Marnie L. LARSON

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 471-476, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.059

The diapause initiation and maintenance phases of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, were screened. Eight transcripts were found to be downregulated as the beetles enter the diapause maintenance phase of diapause development after day 15 postemergence. These transcripts were also expressed in early nondiapausing adults. Using BlastX, the transcripts were placed into six broad categories: regulatory (serpin), structural (apidermin), protease (serine protease), retinol binding protein (CRALBP), carbohydrate metabolism (ß-glucosidase, ß-mannosidase, and cellulose II), and unknown function.

Origin of the complex karyotype of the polyploid parthenogenetic grasshopper Saga pedo (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 477-483, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.060

Karyotypes of the polyploid parthenogenetic species Saga pedo from four localities in France and the Republic of Macedonia were constructed and compared. All these karyotypes consist of 70 chromosomes, which is more than twice that in other species of the genus. The chromosomes differ from each other, making the matching of homologues difficult. Karyotypes of French specimens are similar, except for differences in the heterochromatin. Compared to that of the Macedonian specimens those from French specimens differ by the shortening of a single chromosome. The difficulty experienced in identifying tetrads and even pairs of chromosomes indicates...

Characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endemic Chapman's ringlet, Erebia palarica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Marta VILA, Tomás LATASA, Juan J. PINO, Georges VERHULST

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 485-490, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.061

Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the butterfly Erebia palarica (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), endemic to NW Spain. Polymorphism for 20 individuals from a NW Spanish population (Ancares) and 15 more from two other nearby localities (Courel, Trevinca) was assessed. Overall, the number of alleles per locus ranged from six to 24. Ancares showed an average number of alleles per locus of 14.30 (SD = 5.32), observed heterozygosity of 0.753 (SD = 0.14) and unbiased expected heterozygosity of 0.818 (SD = 0.114). Genotypic frequencies conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at Ancares, and there was no...

Studies on the identity of the parasitoids Aphidius colemani and Aphidius transcaspicus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 491-498, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.062

The taxonomic status of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck has been questioned, especially in regard to Aphidius transcaspicus Telenga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The genetic association between A. colemani and A. transcaspicus was studied by cross mating individuals of A. colemani and A. transcaspicus (A.c.& × A.t.% and A.c.% × A.t.&) and applying appropriate molecular methods. The cross mating resulted in offspring (female and males) that were fertile. Therefore, the cross mating assays performed in an artificial environment showed that these two populations are potentially compatible....

Phosphorylation of small GTPase Rab proteins from Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Tomohide UNO, Keisuke HATA, Dieu Trang LE THI, Susumu HIRAGAKI, Takuya NAKADA, Masahiko NAKAMURA, Yuichi UNO, Hiroshi YAMAGATA, Kengo KANAMARU, Makio TAKEDA, Mamoru MATSUBARA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 499-506, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.063

Small GTPases of the Rab family act as essential regulators of vesicle transport pathways. Five Rab cDNA clones (BRab1, 7, 8, 11 and 14) from Bombyx mori were expressed in Escherichia coli as a thioredxin or glutathione sulfotransferase fusion protein. After purification, the fusion protein was tested for phosphorylation using protein kinase C (PKC). Results indicate that all of them were phosphorylated in vitro. The phosphorylation site of BRab1 was determined by mass-spectrometric analysis, which identified that Ser-17 of BRab1 was phosphorylated by PKC. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Ser-111of BRab8, in addition...

Characterization of neuronal apoptosis in the ventral ganglia of postembryonic silkworms Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

Hwa Young SONG, Chang Ok CHOI, Mi Young KIM, Bo Yong KIM, Tae Joong YOON, Dae Yong SONG, Jung Cheol PARK, Pil Don KANG, Sang Ho LEE, Yeon Jae BAE, Bong Hee LEE

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 507-518, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.064

A fluorescent triple staining method was developed to stain the cytoplasm of neurons red, the nuclei of all kinds of cells, including neurons, blue and the nuclei of apoptotic neurons in cyan in the twelve ventral ganglia (VG) of the Bombyx mori ventral nerve cord. This differential staining method was used to distinguish between apoptotic and normal neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), thoracic ganglia (TG)1 to TG3 and abdominal ganglia (AG)1 to AG8 and also determine the changes in the numbers of apoptotic neurons that occur during postembryonic development. In most of the VG tested, neuronal apoptosis was most marked during the period...

Rhythmic oscillations of α-amylase protein and its enzymatic activity levels in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Marcin A. CIUK, Piotr BEBAS, Bronislaw CYMBOROWSKI

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 519-528, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.065

In this report, we show that α-amylase activity is rhythmic in the wild-type fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and that this rhythm exhibits the properties of a clock output. Moreover, the rhythm of amylase activity is accompanied by fluctuations in the Amy protein level under 12L : 12D conditions. A strong sexual dimorphism is evident in the oscillations of Amy protein and enzymatic activity. Under light : dark (LD) conditions on the control diet, CantonS wild-type Drosophila melanogaster exhibit a bimodal rhythm of amylase activity, particularly of the AmyD3 (Amy3) isoform, with morning and evening peaks....

Interspecific variation in competitor avoidance and foraging success in sap-attracted insects


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 529-533, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.066

Many insect species attracted to fermenting sap often fight for access to this resource, which results in the establishment of interspecific dominance hierarchies. In one such system, the hornet Vespa mandarinia (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) behaviourally dominates during the daytime and several subordinate species avoid aggressive interactions in various ways. In order to elucidate the interspecific variation in competitor-avoidance behaviour and its subsequent effect on foraging success, the behaviour of species of hornets, beetles and butterflies at patches (exudation spots) in Japan was recorded. The percentage of individuals that succeeded in...

Effect of temperature on the reproduction and development of Trichogramma buesi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Sergey Ya. REZNIK, Natalia D. VOINOVICH, Nina P. VAGHINA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 535-544, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.067

At emergence females of Trichogramma had a lot of mature eggs in their ovaries, but some delayed parasitization or refused to parasitize a laboratory host. The effect of constant and alternating temperatures on the percentage of Trichogramma buesi females parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella eggs and the duration of the pre-parasitization period were investigated. The temperature dependencies of the rate of preimaginal development, pre-emergence survival, number of eggs laid daily, and total lifetime fecundity were also determined. As the temperature was increased from 12 to 35°C, the median pre-oviposition period decreased...

Mesostigmatid mites associated with the dung beetle Copris lunaris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 545-550, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.068

We examined the mesostigmatid mites found in four nest chambers of the dung beetle Copris lunaris (Scarabaeidae) in Slovakia. A total of 763 mites was found, belonging to ten species. The most frequent and abundant species were Pelethiphis opacus, Macrocheles copridis, Parasitus copridis, Uropoda copridis, Copriphis pterophilus, and Onchodellus hispani. The nests contained 19 dung balls, each enclosing a beetle pupa. Altogether 472 mites were found in these brood balls. A further 291 mites were found on the parental beetles in the nests. Three mite species...

Correlated traits for dispersal pattern: Terrestrial movement of the water cricket Velia caprai (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Veliidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 551-555, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.069

Macropterous individuals of wing polymorphic semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) usually occur at a high frequency if there is a need to leave an unfavorable habitat or in a generation migrating to/from an overwintering site. Velia caprai (Veliidae) is usually found in unpredictable habitats, but the macropterous morph is rare. Laboratory, mesocosm and field experiments were used to test the hypothesis that individuals of this species migrate by walking rather than by flight. Laboratory experiments that focused on the development of macropterous morph under conditions that usually stimulate the development of this morph in water striders...

Egg-dumping behaviour in the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) selected for early and late reproduction

Darka ŠEŠLIJA, Biljana STOJKOVIĆ, Branka TUCIĆ, Nikola TUCIĆ

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 557-563, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.070

In the present study the egg dumping behaviour in short (E)- and long (L)-lived lines of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus was analyzed. Females of the short-lived E line exhibited substantially higher egg dumping than long-lived L line females. We hypothesize that, since cessation of egg dumping enhances longevity, non-dumping females were selectively favoured in the L regime. Our study also produced evidence that the selection regime affected the male's ability to influence female egg-dumping behaviour. The females mated to males from the lines that were selected for extended longevity and of which the females exhibited little egg-dumping...

Performance of a predatory ladybird beetle, Anegleis cardoni (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on three aphid species

OMKAR, Gyanendra KUMAR, Jyotsna SAHU

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 565-572, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.071

Qualitative and quantitative differences in prey are known to affect the life histories of predators. A laboratory study was used to evaluate the suitability of three aphid prey, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora and Lipaphis erysimi, for the ladybird beetle, Anegleis cardoni (Weise). Development was fastest on A. gossypii followed by A. craccivora and L. erysimi. Percentage pupation, immature survival, adult weight and the growth index were all highest when reared on A. gossypii and lowest on L. erysimi. Similarly, oviposition period, lifetime fecundity and egg viability were all...

Artificial diet for two flat-headed borers, Capnodis spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 573-581, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.072

The main objective was to develop an artificial diet for two flat-headed borers, Capnodis tenebrionis L. and C. carbonaria Klug. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which are severe pests of stonefruit plantations in the Mediterranean basin. The effect of proteins from various sources, percentage of cortex tissue in the diet and diet structure on larval growth and survival were investigated. The most successful diet contained 2.8% casein and 4.6% dry brewer's yeast as the protein source. For complete larval development and successful pupation it is essential to include cortex tissue from the host plant in the diet. Mean larval development time...

Bottom-up effects of host plant nutritional quality on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and top-down effects of herbivore attack on plant compensatory ability


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 583-594, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.073

The plant stress and plant vigour hypotheses are competing paradigms pertaining to the preference and performance of herbivorous insects on their host plants. Tests of these hypotheses ideally require detailed information on aspects of soil nutrition, foliar nutrient levels and parameters of herbivore fitness, but such studies are uncommon. These hypotheses were tested using the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), reared on its host plant, Brassica napus (L.), grown in an experimental system of five nutrient regimes. Different levels of fertilizer treatments significantly affected the nutrient content...

The effect of the age of the serpentine leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on parasitism by the parasitoid wasp Gronotoma micromorpha (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

Yoshihisa ABE

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 595-598, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.074

Gronotoma micromorpha is a solitary egg-pupal and larval-pupal parasitoid. In a previous study, the developmental time of this parasitoid decreased with the age of its leaf miner host, Liriomyza trifolii, being significantly longer when the host was 0-day old (= 0-24 h old egg) than when 4 days old (mature larva) at the time of parasitization at 25°C. In the present study, the suitability and acceptability of 0 and 4 day old L. trifolii as hosts for G. micromorpha, and the ovipositional preference of this parasitoid for these two developmental stages of the host were examined. No significant difference was found in the size of...

Experimental evidence for density-determined wing dimorphism in two bush-crickets (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 599-605, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.075

Macroptery is common in many species of Orthoptera, but the causes are still discussed. Besides the assumption that macroptery is genetically determined, there is evidence that wing dimorphism is induced by environmental factors, particularly population density. However, most of the research is on pest species. In contrast, knowledge of wing dimorphism in species that occur at low population densites is still poor. Our study aims to test how density actually affects macroptery. As model organisms we chose two bush-cricket species of the genus Metrioptera (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae): While long-winged M. roeselii (Hagenbach, 1822) occur...

The presence of micropyles in the shells of developing and undeveloped eggs of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 607-610, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.076

In Hymenoptera and Heteroptera, the absence of micropyles is one criterion for categorizing an egg as trophic. Undeveloped eggs are observed in more than 90% of the egg clusters of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Traditionally, these undeveloped eggs are regarded as "trophic eggs." The surfaces of the eggs of H. axyridis were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the presence of micropyles in the shells of developing and undeveloped eggs determined. Micropyles are circularly distributed around the top of eggs and present in both developing and undeveloped eggs. The number of micropyles in the shells of developing...

Ecology of a relict population of the vulnerable butterfly Pyrgus sidae on the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 611-618, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.077

There are isolated populations of the endangered butterfly, Pyrgus sidae, on the Iberian Peninsula. The mark-release-recapture method was used to study the population parameters, the use of resources and the spatial distribution of a population in the centre of Spain. The estimated number of males and females within the population were similar and did not differ significantly from a ratio of 1 : 1. Total population size was estimated to be 569 ± 83 individuals. Potentilla recta is the principal adult nectar source and larval food plant, and its abundance is correlated with the number of marked and recaptured butterflies. The average...

The eye of the parthenogenetic and minute moth Ectoedemia argyropeza (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 619-629, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.078

Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) possesses a compound eye that exhibits features of both apposition and superposition type eyes. Like apposition eyes, the eye of E. argyropeza lacks a clear-zone, which in superposition eyes separates the distal dioptric from the proximal light-perceiving structures. On the other hand, a tracheal layer around the proximal ends of the rhabdom as well as a well-developed corneal nipple array on the corneal surfaces are features that E. argyropeza shares with the larger moths. Unique, and so far only seen to this extreme degree in any insect, is the hourglass-shape of E. argyropeza's rhabdom, in...

Systematic revision of Macrotingis and phylogenetic analysis of the genera Macrotingis and Ceratotingis (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

Sara Itzel MONTEMAYOR, Luiz Antônio Alves COSTA

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 631-642, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.079

The Central American genus Macrotingis Champion, 1897 was revised and the morphological characters of the species of Macrotingis and those of its sister group Ceratotingis Montemayor, 2008 were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. A species previously placed in the genus Tigava is now Ceratotingis spatula (Monte, 1945), new combination. Cladistic analysis indicates that both genera are monophyletic and defined the relationships between species. Keys to the species in these genera are provided together with illustrations of their main morphological characters and a map of their distribution in Central America.

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Lythria and description of the male genitalia of L. venustata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 643-650, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.080

We present a molecular phylogeny incorporating all five species of the Palaearctic geometrid genus Lythria, based on a 2810-bp combined data matrix comprising the full sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and fragments of the nuclear genes elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α) and wingless (wgl). L. venustata, which was recently rediscovered from Kazakhstan, is shown to be sister taxon to all other members of the genus. The remaining species within the genus form two pairs of sister species: L. purpuraria groups together with L. plumularia, and L. cruentaria with L. sanguinaria....

The first holistic SEM study of Coniopterygidae (Neuroptera) - structural evidence and phylogenetic implications

Dominique ZIMMERMANN, Waltraud KLEPAL, Ulrike ASPÖCK

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 651-662, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.081

Adults of two coniopterygid species, Aleuropteryx juniperi Ohm, 1968 (Aleuropteryginae) and Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836) (Coniopteryginae), were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Interspecific differences in the ultrastructure of the integument of all the major parts of the body were identified and described, and the functional and phylogenetic implications of the differences discussed. Additionally, the enlarged terminal segment of the labial palps of the Coniopterygidae and the Sisyridae, which up to now has been used as an argument for a sister-group relationship between these two families, was subjected to a...

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the bamboo locust Rammeacris kiangsu (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

Wen-Juan XUAN, Yan-Yan ZHANG, Na-Na LIU, Jin-Liang ZHAO, Guo-Fang JIANG

Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 663-665, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.082

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and characterized from the bamboo locust, Rammeacris kiangsu, based on enriched genomic libraries. Analysis of 30 individuals showed that the number of alleles ranged from seven to 25 with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.333 to 0.767 and expected heterozygosity from 0.784 to 0.963. Test of cross-species amplification showed that some of these microsatellite markers could be used for studying other species such as Ceracris nigricornis, C. fasciata, and Chorthippus brunneus.

Do covers influence the capture efficiency of pitfall traps?


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 667-671, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.083

Pitfall traps are widely used in terrestrial ecology to capture ground-dwelling arthropods. In order to determine the effect of covers placed over pitfall traps on their efficiency at capturing of spiders, carabid beetles and ants, four types of pitfall trap were sunk into the ground at dry grassland sites: three pitfall traps were not covered, three were covered with white, three with green and three with black plastic covers. The total catch was 9,364 spiders, 4,352 carabid beetles and 4,157 ants. The distribution of species of spiders and carabid beetles, and the total catch of spiders, carabid beetles and ants did not differ significantly among...

Pape T., Bickel D. & Meier R. (eds): DIPTERA DIVERSITY: Status, Challenges and Tools.


Eur. J. Entomol. 106 (4): 672, 2009 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2009.084

Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, Boston, 2009, 459 pp. ISBN 978 90 04 14897 0. Price EUR 119.00, USD 186.00.