EJE, vol. 105 (2008), issue 3


E.W. Evans, I. Hodek, N.G. Kavallieratos, E. Lucas, M. Mackauer, J.P. Michaud

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 365-368, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.046

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ECOLOGY OF APHIDOPHAGA 10, Athens, September 2007 Organized by the Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Kifissia, Attica, and the Agricultural University of Athens

Multitrophic interactions among plants, aphids, alternate prey and shared natural enemies - a review

Edward W. EVANS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 369-380, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.047

Given the generalist tendencies of most predatory arthropods, it is widely thought that their impact on a particular prey species in a given habitat (e.g., an insect pest in a crop) will depend frequently on the local availability of other prey (which for omnivorous predators, can include plant resources, such as fruit and pollen). Thus, from a slightly different perspective, aphids, other herbivorous insects, and plants often may interact indirectly by sharing natural enemies. Such interactions may be either negative or positive, as in the concepts of apparent competition and apparent mutualism, and may therefore have variable impact on the herbivores'...

Weighty matters: Body size, diet and specialization in aphidophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 381-389, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.048

Aphidophagous ladybirds exhibit a broad range of body sizes. Until now this has been thought to be a function of the different prey densities that they feed at, with smaller ladybirds feeding at lower prey densities. The size of the prey species they feed on has been considered to have no relationship with ladybird body size. However, these arguments possess a limited capacity to explain observed data from the field. I here demonstrate a more realistic, complex approach incorporating both prey density and the size of prey species. Small ladybirds can feed on small aphids at both low and high densities. However when the aphid species is large they cannot...

Forgotten natural enemies: Interactions between coccinellids and insect-parasitic fungi


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 391-398, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.049

The role of predators and parasitoids in the regulation of insect populations is widely reported in the context of both pest and non-pest insects. However, this is not the case for pathogens (entomopathogens). Indeed, most studies on insect life history refer only to predators and parasitoids when considering natural enemy guilds, even though naturally occurring entomopathogens are undoubtedly more diverse and widespread. This is certainly the case with the Coccinellidae; the natural enemies of coccinellids have been the subject of a number of review articles but pathogens receive only brief mention. In this review we attempt to address the balance...

Leucopis annulipes larvae (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) use a furtive predation strategy within aphid colonies


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 399-403, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.050

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine whether the predation strategy of larvae of the aphidophagous silver fly Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) is furtive, as are larvae of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), or active like aphidophagous ladybird beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The impact of L. annulipes larvae on pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), colony disturbance was evaluated and compared with that of the furtive predator A. aphidimyza and the active-searching ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis...

Dispersal dynamics: Distribution of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Vlastimil KŘIVAN

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 405-409, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.051

This article studies coccinellid dispersal in heterogeneous environments using some hypotheses on dispersal rates that correspond to empirical observations. It is assumed that emigration rates increase with decreasing patch payoff that is measured either as the number of aphids per a lady beetle, or as the number of aphids only. Three scenarios for immigration are considered: individuals choose patches unconditionally, immigration is proportional to patch quality, and immigration is proportional to patch payoff. Coccinellid spatial distributions corresponding to these assumptions are given by a power law. Using some data from the literature on distribution...

Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the abundance and species richness of aphidophagous beetles and aphids in experimental alfalfa landscapes

Audrey A. GREZ, Tania ZAVIEZO, Sandra DÍAZ, Bernardino CAMOUSSEIGT, Galaxia CORTÉS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 411-420, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.052

In agro-ecosystems, habitat loss and fragmentation may alter the assemblage of aphidophagous insects, such as foliar-foraging (coccinellids) and ground-foraging predators (carabids), potentially affecting intraguild interactions. We evaluated how habitat loss (0, 55 and 84%), fragmentation (1, 4 and 16 fragments) and their combination affected the abundance and species richness of coccinellids and carabids, and aphid abundance, both in the short-term (summer: December to February) and over a longer time span (autumn: March to May), when different demographic mechanisms may participate. We created four types of 30 × 30 m patches (landscapes) in which...

Body size and the temporal sequence in the reproductive activity of two species of aphidophagous coccinellids exploiting the same resource

Alois HONĚK, Anthony F.G. DIXON, Zdeňka MARTINKOVÁ

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 421-425, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.053

The hypothesis that small species of aphidophagous coccinellids need lower aphid population densities for reproduction than large species (Dixon, 2007) was tested in the field. In 2006 we compared seasonal changes in the oviposition behaviour of two coccinellid species regularly found in cereal stands in central Europe, the large Coccinella septempunctata L. and the small Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.). Adults of both species were collected at 2-3 day intervals from stands of winter wheat and spring barley, females were allowed to deposit eggs for 24 h following collection and the percentage that laid eggs and the number of eggs were...

Life table parameters of the aphid predators Coccinella septempunctata, Ceratomegilla undecimnotata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Dimitrios C. KONTODIMAS, Panagiotis G. MILONAS, George J. STATHAS, Nickolaos E. PAPANIKOLAOU, Anna SKOURTI, Yiannis G. MATSINOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 427-430, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.054

The life tables of the aphid predators Coccinella septempunctata L., Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Schneider) and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), fed on Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were constructed at constant conditions (25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 2% RH; 16L : 8D). The average total fecundities of C. septempunctata, C. undecimnotata and P. quatuordecimpunctata were 1996.8, 1160.5, and 724.6 eggs / female, and the average longevities were 94.9, 88.3, and 68.9 days, respectively. The net reproductive rates (Ro) were 1004.1, 544.3, and 375.1 females/female,...

Ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) prefers toxic prey in laboratory choice experiment


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 431-436, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.055

In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the preference of larvae and adults of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for three aphid species: two essential prey, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis philadelphi, and a toxic prey Aphis sambuci. Surprisingly, the toxic aphid was consumed at twice the rate of the two essential prey species. The stages and genders of the ladybirds did not differ in their preference for aphid species. In the tritrophic interaction, in the field, on the elder host plant Sambucus nigra, A. sambuci is usually avoided by C. septempunctata. To measure ladybird preference,...

Effects of larval diet on female reproductive output of the European coccinellid Adalia bipunctata and the invasive species Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Remy L. WARE, Benjamin YGUEL, Michael E.N. MAJERUS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 437-443, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.056

Cannibalism and intraguild predation (IGP) are both common phenomena amongst aphidophagous coccinellids and serve as vital alternative feeding strategies which can prolong survival during periods of aphid scarcity. A reduction in essential prey density and the acceptance of conspecific or heterospecific prey are likely to have a considerable influence on both larval development and adult reproduction. However, little is known about the legacy of larval diet on adult performance. This paper considers the effects of the diet provided to larvae of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)...

Sympatric coexistence of sibling species Harmonia yedoensis and H. axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the roles of maternal investment through egg and sibling cannibalism

Naoya OSAWA, Kazunori OHASHI

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 445-454, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.057

The sibling species H. yedoensis Takizawa coexists sympatrically and simultaneously with H. axyridis only on pine trees in Japan. To elucidate the mechanisms enabling coexistence of these two sympatric sibling species, a laboratory experiment was performed that focused on differences in their maternal investment through eggs and the role of sibling cannibalism. The egg size (volume) of H. yedoensis was 24.91% larger than that of H. axyridis. Cluster size in H. axyridis was significantly larger than that in H. yedoensis; however, the total number of eggs and oviposition cost (by volume) per female in H. yedoensis...

Susceptibility of endemic and exotic North American ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to endemic fungal entomopathogens


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 455-460, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.058

We tested the laboratory susceptibility of four endemic and two exotic species of North American Coccinellidae to a single rate (2.5 × 105 conidia/ml) of Beauveria bassiana derived from different sources. The endemic species Olla v-nigrum, Cycloneda munda and Hippodamia convergens were susceptible to B. bassiana Isolate B which was originally isolated from O. v-nigrum and the rate assayed was known to represent the LC50 against O. v-nigrum. However, neither the endemic C. maculata nor the exotic species Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata were susceptible...

The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), alternative prey for the lacewing Dichochrysa prasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Maria L. PAPPAS, Georgios D. BROUFAS, Dimitris S. KOVEOS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 461-466, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.059

The predatory lacewing Dichochrysa prasina Burmeister can feed and reproduce on various aphid species. However, other species such as the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch may serve as an alternative prey for this predator in the field in periods when the population density of aphids is low. In peach orchards in Northern Greece D. prasina larvae are often found during the summer months on leaves infested with T. urticae. The development and reproduction of D. prasina fed on T. urticae at a series of different constant temperatures were studied. The percentages of D. prasina larvae that...

Agricultural policy-induced landscape changes: effects on carabid abundance and their biocontrol potential


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 467-476, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.060

One of the most important services provided by biodiversity is thought to be the biological control of pests in agricultural landscapes, including aphids on cereals. The food webs potentially contributing to biological control of aphids primarily consist of polyphagous predators, parasitoids and pathogens. The problems of aphid pests have increased greatly since the 1970-ies, possibly as an effect of agricultural intensification, which is thought to have reduced diversity and abundance of these predators and parasites and consequently their biocontrol potential. The main objective of this study was to test this by measuring this potential for biological...

Plant chemistry and aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Imprinting and memory


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 477-483, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.061

Emerging parasitoids of aphids encounter secondary plant chemistry from cues left by the mother parasitoid at oviposition and from the plant-feeding of the host aphid. In practice, however, it is secondary plant chemistry on the surface of the aphid mummy which influences parasitoid olfactory behaviour. Offspring of Aphidius colemani reared on Myzus persicae on artificial diet did not distinguish between the odours of bean and cabbage, but showed a clear preference for cabbage odour if sinigrin had been painted on the back of the mummy. Similarly Aphidius rhopalosiphi reared on Metopolophium dirhodum on wheat preferred the...

The parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) as a potential biological control agent of the aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce in Brazil

Bruno Freitas DE CONTI, Vanda Helena Paes BUENO, Marcus Vinicius SAMPAIO

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 485-487, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.062

The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) is one of the principal pests found on greenhouse lettuce crops, and there is no efficient biological control agent of this pest in Brazil. This work evaluates the aphid U. ambrosiae as a host for the parasitoid Praon volucre (Haliday), aimed at using P. volucre as a potential biological control agent of U. ambrosiae on lettuce. As Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) is a common host of P. volucre in the field, the development of the parasitoid was compared on these two aphid species. Twenty nymphs of the 2nd instar were kept with P. volucre...

The effect of the quality and size of host aphid species on the biological characteristics of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

Marcus Vinicius SAMPAIO, Vanda Helena Paes BUENO, Bruno Freitas DE CONTI

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 489-494, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.063

A suitable host provides, at least, the minimum nutritional and physiological conditions for the development of the immature stages of a parasitoid. Host quality may influence the developmental time, mortality rate, longevity and fecundity of parasitoids. This work evaluates the suitability and quality of Aphis gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linné), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) as hosts for Aphidius colemani Viereck. Twenty second-instar nymphs of each aphid species were exposed to parasitism for one hour, and then kept in a climatic chamber...

Cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) in Serbia: Seasonal dynamics and natural enemies


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 495-501, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.064

During 1989-2006 the number of live aphid, mummies, aphid specialist predators and their parasitoids in cereal fields in Serbia were recorded. S. avenae and M. dirhodum were the most common, both on wheat and rye crops. Maximum numbers of cereal aphids were detected between the end of May and the middle of June. A low percentage of mummified aphids was recorded during May and June, but increased rapidly at the beginning of July, when aphids left the wheat crop. Here, we record over 60 species of cereal aphid natural enemies, including primary and secondary parasitoids, aphid specific predators and a wide spectrum of their parasitoids...


Ting Fan (Stanley) LAU, Elisabeth Maria GROSS, Victor Benno MEYER-ROCHOW

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 502, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.065


In our recent publication:
Lau T.F.S., Gross E.M. & Meyer-Rochow V.B. 2007: Sexual dimorphism and light/dark adaptation in the compound eyes of male and female Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 104: 459-470.
the reference
Schwind R. 1993: Reflection-polarization pattern at water surfaces and correction of a common representation of the polarization pattern of the sky. Naturwissenschaften 80: 82-83.

fails to mention the co-author of that paper and, thus, should have been

Schwind R. & Horvath G. 1993: Reflection-polarization pattern at water surfaces and correction...

A landscape view of cereal aphid parasitoid dynamics reveals sensitivity to farm- and region-scale vegetation structure

Michael J. BREWER, Takuji NOMA, Norman C. ELLIOTT, Alexandra N. KRAVCHENKO, Ann L. HILD

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 503-511, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.066

Functioning of plant-aphid-natural enemy interactions may be associated with the structure and composition of withinfield vegetation, neighborhood fields and field borders, and the regional plant community of cropped and noncropped areas. Farmand region-scale vegetation in the wheat-growing area of the North American Great Plains was hypothesized to effect the abundance of two hymenopteran parasitoids, that differ in physiological and behavioral attributes, of the key pest aphid of wheat, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). The parasitoids had greater sensitivity to farm-scale vegetation (wheat strip rotation with or without spring-sown sunflower)...

Wajnberg E., Bernstein C. & van Alphen J.: Behavioral Ecology of Insect Parasitoids. From Theoretical Approaches to Field Applications.


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 512, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.067

Blackwell, Malden, MA & Oxford, 2008, 445 pp., ISBN 978- 1-4051-6347-7. Price EUR 60.80, GBP 45.00.

Corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a key to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), biological control in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor

Gerald J. MICHELS, James H. MATIS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 513-520, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.068

In the sorghum/aphid/ladybeetle ecosystem found in the Texas High Plains Region of the United States, we found that the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), is a key aphid species that provides a critical early-season food source for native coccinellids. From 1988 to 2000 data on the seasonal abundance of sorghum-infesting aphids and ladybeetles were collected from a total of 21 irrigated and 12 rain-fed grain sorghum fields. The data indicated that successful biological control of the greenbug by coccinellids is normally dependent on early-season colonization of the sorghum field by corn leaf aphids. When corn leaf aphids exceeded...

Apple aphid, Aphis spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and predator populations in an apple orchard at the non-bearing stage: The impact of ground cover and cultivar


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 521-529, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.069

A two-year field experiment was conducted to determine whether a conservation biological control strategy could be applied to enhance the biological control of green apple aphids, Aphis spp., in a high-density and scab-resistant apple orchard at the non-bearing stage. The natural occurrence of aphid predators and their impact on aphid populations were evaluated in 2005. The impact of predation on aphid densities was evaluated by comparing a predator exclusion treatment with a control. In 2006, the possibility to enhance predator abundance/performance and aphid biological control with a flowering ground cover was tested: trees were grown...

Introducing barley as aphid reservoir in sweet-pepper greenhouses: Effects on native and released hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 531-535, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.070

Habitat management is a form of conservation biological control, that includes strategies such as the provision of alternative prey for natural enemies. One example is the "banker plants" strategy, which consists of introducing cereals with aphids in horticultural crops. It is usually combined with parasitoid releases. In this work we evaluated whether aphid-infested barley as "banker plants" enhances native populations of aphidophagous syrphids and extends the residence time of Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) following release. The work was performed in four replicated sweet-pepper commercial greenhouses in the southeast of Spain. Barley was...

Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on apple by providing natural alternative food resources

Mark W. BROWN, Clarissa R. MATHEWS

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 537-540, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.071

Enhancing biological control in orchards is an efficient way to control insect pests. This study investigates the possibility of increasing biological control of spirea aphid by providing alternate food resources, in the form of peach extrafloral nectar, to adult Harmonia axyridis, its primary predator. Two pairs of apple orchards, each having one interplanted with 50% trees bearing extrafloral nectar and one a monoculture, were studied for aphid and predator populations from 1999 to 2005. There were no differences in spirea aphid or predator populations between interplanted and monoculture orchards. However, H. axyridis adults arrived...

The aphidophagous predator Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Greece, 1994-1999

Dimitrios C. KONTODIMAS, George J. STATHAS, Aggeliki F. MARTINOU

Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (3): 541-544, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.072

During the years 1994-1999, several hundreds of thousands of H. axyridis adults were released at various cultivations infested by aphids (citrus, vegetable and bean crops, maize etc.) and on ornamental plants in urban settings in central and southern Greece (mainly Attica and Peloponessos region) as well as on several islands. Between 1995-1999, spring sampling was conducted in some areas, just prior to releases, in order to determine if H. axyridis overwintered in the field. No presence of H. axyridis was recorded in any of the orchards where the predator had been released save in spring of 1998 and 1999 when small colonies (<50...