EJE, vol. 105 (2008), issue 5
Chemical cues mediating aphid location by natural enemies
Eduardo HATANO, Grit KUNERT, J.P. MICHAUD, Wolfgang W. WEISSER
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 797-806, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.106
There is increasing evidence that chemical cues play a pivotal role in host selection by the natural enemies of aphids. We use Vinson's (1976) division of the host selection process into habitat location, host location and host acceptance for both parasitoids and predators and review what is known about the role of semiochemicals in aphid selection by natural enemies. For habitat location (i.e. detection of the host plant), volatiles emitted by plants after aphid attack have been described for a number of plant-aphid interactions. These synomones indicate not only the presence of an aphid host plant to the predator or parasitoid, but also the presence...
Genetic diversity in European pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), populations assessed using AFLP analysis
Nadiya KAZACHKOVA, Johan MEIJER, Barbara EKBOM
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 807-814, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.107
The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is one of the most important insect pests of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and extensive use of insecticides is required to protect crop yields. To meet the challenges set by agricultural demands for more sustainable production and changing climate more information about pest biology and population genetics is needed. Using genomic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, DNA polymorphism was studied in 14 field populations of pollen beetles, collected during 2004 in six European countries (Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and UK). Using one primer combination 410 polymorphic...
Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Arginine kinase cloning and RNAi-based pest control
Yiying ZHAO, Guang YANG, Gefu WANG-PRUSKI, Minsheng YOU
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 815-822, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.108
Insect pests cause billions of dollars in crop losses and there is the ever-present threat of insecticide resistance, pesticide pollution of food and environmental damage. New ways of controlling insect pests are urgently needed. Arginine kinase (AK) is a phosphotransferase, which plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates. It only presents in invertebrates and may be a suitable chemotherapeutic target in the control of pests. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length AK gene from Phyllotreta striolata, one of the most destructive beetle pests worldwide. Furthermore, we constructed a dsRNA targeting...
The usefulness of chromosomes of parasitic wasps of the subfamily Eupelminae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) for subfamily systematics
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 823-828, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.109
Karyotypes of 16 Eupelminae species were analyzed. The haploid chromosome number was found to be much more diverse than the n = 5 previously recorded for three studied species. All species investigated of Eupelmus (Eupelmus), Eupelmus (Macroneura), Merostenus excavatus and three species of Anastatus have a karyotype of n = 5; n = 7 in Eupelmus (Episolindelia) linearis, n = 8 in Arachnophaga picardi, and n = 10 in Anastatus ruficaudus. The modal chromosome number is n = 5 and this is considered to be the plesiomorphic character...
Why does the Namib Desert tenebrionid Onymacris unguicularis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) fog-bask?
Strinivasan G. NAIDU
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 829-838, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.110
Dehydration of Onymacris unguicularis (Haag) for 10 days at 27°C resulted in a weight loss of 14.9%, and a 37% decrease in haemolymph volume. Although there was an overall decrease in the lipid content during this period, metabolic water production was insufficient to maintain total body water (TBW). Rehydration resulted in increases in body weight (6.2% of initial weight), TBW (to normality), and haemolymph volume (sub-normal at the end of rehydration). Despite an increase of 44.0 mg in the wet weight of O. unguicularis after drinking for 1h, there was little change in the water content at this time, although the total lipid content...
Changes in the volatile profile of Brassica oleracea due to feeding and oviposition by Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Eric CONTI, Claudia ZADRA, Gianandrea SALERNO, Benedetta LEOMBRUNI, Daniela VOLPE, Francesca FRATI, Cesare MARUCCHINI, Ferdinando BIN
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 839-847, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.111
The mixture of volatile compounds emitted by Brassica oleracea var. sabauda changed significantly in response to feeding and/or oviposition by Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Volatiles were collected from (1) healthy plants and those with (2) feeding punctures, (3) a combination of feeding punctures and oviposition, (4) feeding punctures and one hatched egg mass and (5) plants bearing only an egg mass. In the case of plants with feeding punctures or feeding punctures plus an egg mass, the volatiles were also collected at different time intervals after plants were subjected to these two treatments (0-24 h, 24-48 h and...
Sperm viability in the male accessory testes and female spermathecae of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Michael GREEFF, Paul SCHMID-HEMPEL
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 849-854, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.112
In many species sperm competition selects for large ejaculates while females eliminate or disable a high percentage of the spermatozoa in their storage organs in order to control paternity. Therefore, sperm viability is an excellent measure of the reproductive success of both males and females. Here we assess the viability of spermatozoa in males, freshly mated queens and old queens at the end of a colony cycle of the monandrous bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found that the accessory testes of males contained a significantly lower percentage of dead sperm (i.e. higher average viability) than the spermathecae of both freshly mated and old queens....
Brood attending by females of the hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on cocoon clusters of its host, Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its effects on reproduction, development and survival
Naoto TAKAI, Yutaka NAKAMATSU, Jeffrey A. HARVEY, Ken MIURA, Toshiharu TANAKA
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 855-862, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.113
Theoretical models predict that brood guarding may evolve in situations where eggs are costly to produce or when handling times are long. This study reveals that females of the secondary hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena guarded cocoon broods of Cotesia kariyai, a gregarious endoparasitoid. Hyperparasitoid females also monopolized host resources and protected their offspring by driving away other conspecific hyperparasitoid females. The females exhibited antagonistic behavior towards competitors through threatening body postures, biting and chasing. Using a video camera to determine how long a hyperparasitoid female attended...
Distribution and diversity of wheat aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Iran
Ehsan RAKHSHANI, ®eljko TOMANOVIĘ, Petr STARŻ, Ali-Asghar TALEBI, Nickolas G. KAVALLIERATOS, Abbas-Ali ZAMANI, Srdjan STAMENKOVIĘ
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 863-870, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.114
Eleven species of parasitoids were found to attack 7 species of wheat aphids in Iran. The Simpson's Index of diversity (D) used to compare the aphidiine diversity in various cereal crop systems in geographically different regions of Iran ranged from 0.197 to 0.488, depending on locality. There were significant differences among species diversities at different altitudes. The central highlands (1000-1500 meters above mean sea level) were the areas with the most diverse aphid parasitoid complex, differing significantly from that at lower and higher altitudes. We found that altitude explained about 10% of the cereal aphid parasitoid distribution...
Host ant specificity of large blue butterflies Phengaris (Maculinea) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) inhabiting humid grasslands in East-central Europe
Magdalena WITEK, Ewa B. ¦LIWIŃSKA, Piotr SKÓRKA, Piotr NOWICKI, Marta WANTUCH, Vladimķr VRABEC, Josef SETTELE, Michal WOYCIECHOWSKI
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 871-877, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.115
Butterflies of the genus Phengaris have a highly specialised life cycle involving an obligatory relationship with Myrmica ants. A knowledge of the host ant specificity is essential for understanding the relationship between a particular Phengaris species and its hosts and also important for the conservation of these butterflies. Data on host ant specificity were collected in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Ukraine. Five different Myrmica species were used by P. teleius as hosts (M. scabrinodis, M. rubra, M. ruginodis, M. rugulosa and M. gallienii) and at most localities...
Effectiveness of two sampling methods used for collecting Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) in the Cabañeros National Park (Spain)
Marina MAZÓN, Santiago BORDERA
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 879-888, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.116
When estimating the species richness of a taxonomic group in a specific area, the choice of the trapping method is extremely important. In this study the effectiveness of Malaise and Moericke yellow pan traps for collecting flying Ichneumonidae was compared. Samples were collected in 5 habitats in the Cabañeros National Park: pastureland, shrubland and three types of woodland. Two traps of each type were placed in each habitat, and samples collected over a period of one year, replacing the pots every 20 days. The study focused on eleven subfamilies of Ichneumonidae. The results showed that the composition of the Ichneumonidae in the catches...
Predatory behaviour of some Central European pselaphine beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) with descriptions of relevant morphological features of their heads
Andrea SCHOMANN, Kerstin AFFLERBACH, Oliver BETZ
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 889-907, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.117
The Pselaphinae is a large subfamily of staphylinid beetles with a characteristic habitus and small body size. Detailed morphological and behavioural studies on these beetles are scarce. In this study, specimens of Bryaxis puncticollis (Denny, 1825), Bryaxis bulbifer (Reichenbach, 1816), Bythinus burrelli (Denny, 1825), Brachygluta fossulata (Reichenbach, 1816), Rybaxis longicornis (Leach, 1817), Pselaphus heisei (Herbst, 1792) and Tyrus mucronatus (Panzer, 1803), all collected in Northern Germany, have been examined with regard to their sensory organs (eyes and antennae), mouthparts and method...
Taxonomy of the genus Amphiareus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in Southeast Asia
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 909-916, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.118
Four species of the genus Amphiareus are recognized in southeastern Asia, including two new species, A. edentulus and A. rompinus, both from Johor, Malaysia. The two known species, A. constrictus (Stål) and A. ruficollaris Yamada & Hirowatari are also diagnosed and figured; the latter is recorded from this region for the first time. The genus is diagnosed and briefly discussed.
Comparative study of larval head structures of Megaloptera (Hexapoda)
Rolf G. BEUTEL, Frank FRIEDRICH
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 917-938, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.119
External and internal head structures of the larva of Neohermes are described in detail. The results are compared to conditions found in other representatives of Corydalidae, in Sialidae, and in Raphidioptera and Neuroptera. Corydalidae and Sialidae are mainly characterised by plesiomorphic features such as distinct frontal and coronal sutures, six stemmata, a movable labrum with a full set of muscles, a thin tentoriomandibular muscle, a distinct maxillary groove, 4-segmented maxillary palps, an oblique arrangement of the extrinsic maxillary muscles, a labium with all components except for the glossae and paraglossae, 3-segmented labial palps,...
Latitudinal variation in morphology in two sympatric damselfly species with contrasting range dynamics (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)
Christopher HASSALL, David J. THOMPSON, Ian F. HARVEY
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 939-944, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.120
Geographic range expansion is one of the best documented macroecological consequences of climate change. A concomitant change in morphology has been demonstrated in some species. The relationship between latitudinal variation in morphology (e.g. Bergmann's rule) and the morphological consequences of microevolutionary pressures at expanding range margins have received little attention in the literature. Here we compare morphology of males of two Palaearctic damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera) species, Coenagrion puella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer, 1776). C. puella has recently expanded its range from the north of...
Microsatellites for the highly invasive Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and their amplification in related species
Neus MARI MENA, Romain VALADE, Emmanuelle MAGNOUX, Sylvie AUGUSTIN, Carlos LOPEZ-VAAMONDE
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 945-948, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.121
A set of six polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for the highly invasive horse chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella. For 96 positive clones, six polymorphic microsatellites with conserved flanking regions were identified. The average number of alleles per locus was eight (range from three to 12). Two of these loci showed significant heterozygosity deficits due to null alleles. The remaining four loci did not depart from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In addition, all six loci were amplified for 20 other gracillariid species belonging to eight different genera, including another invasive species Phyllonorycter platani....
Amiet F.: FAUNA HELVETICA 23. VESPOIDEA 1 (Mutillidae, Sapygidae, Scoliidae, Tiphiidae).
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 949-950, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.122
Centra Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF/SZKF), Schweizerische Entomologische Gesselschaft (SES/SEG), Neuchatel, 2008, 86 pp., 95 drawings, 24 photographs, 27 distribution maps. ISBN 978-2-88414-035-5, ISSN 1422-6367. Price CHF 30.00.
Jolivet P., Santiago-Blay J.A. & Schmitt M. (eds): RESEARCH ON CHRYSOMELIDAE. VOL. 1.
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 951, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.123
Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2008, 430 pp., 38 colour plates. ISBN 978-90-04-15204-5. Price EUR 169.00/USD 270.00.
ERRATA: Walczynska A. 2007: Energy budget of wood-feeding larvae of Corymbia rubra (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 104: 181-185.
Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (5): 952, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.124