Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (1): 137-147, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.019

Sycophila pistacina (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae): A valid species

Hosseinali LOTFALIZADEH2, Gérard DELVARE*,1, Jean-Yves RASPLUS1
1 INRA CIRAD IRD Centre de Biologie et de Gestion des Populations (CBGP), Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
2 Department of Insect Taxonomy, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, P.O.B. 19395-1454, Iran

Sycophila pistacina
(Rondani), which was previously synonymized with Sycophila biguttata (Swederus), is revalidated. Morphological, morphometric and molecular data confirm its status as a separate species. Diagnostic characters are provided for distinguishing it from S. biguttata. The nomenclature of the S. biguttata complex is updated.

Keywords: Eurytomidae, Sycophila, Sycophila biguttata, S. pistacina, S. iracemae, status revised, parasitoid, morphometrics, molecular phylogeny, COI, ITS2

Received: July 9, 2007; Accepted: October 12, 2007; Published: February 15, 2008

Download citation


  1. ASKEW R.R. 1984: The biology of gall wasps. In Ananthakrishnan T.N. (ed.) Biology of Gall Insects. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta, pp. 231-271
  2. ASKEW R.R., PLANTARD O., GOMEZ J.F., HERNANDEZ NIEVES M., NIEVES-ALDREY J.L. 2006: Catalogue of parasitoids and inquilines in galls of Aylacini, Diplolepidini and Pediaspidini (Hym., Cynipidae) in the West Palaearctic. Zootaxa 1301: 1-60
  3. AXELROD D.I. 1975: Evolution and biogeography of MadreanTethyan sclerophyll vegetation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 280-334 Go to original source...
  4. BOHEMAN C.H. 1836: Skandinaviska Pteromaliner. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 1835: 220-259
  5. BOUCEK Z. 1974: On the Chalcidoidea (Hym.) described by C. Rondani. Redia 55: 241-285
  6. BREWER S., CHEDDADI R., BEAULIEU DE J.L. & REILLE M. 2002: The spread of deciduous Quercus throughout Europe since the last glacial period. Forest Ecol. Manag. 156: 27-48 Go to original source...
  7. CAMPBELL B.C., STEFFEN-CAMPBELL J.D. & WERREN J.H. 1993: Phylogeny of the Nasonia species complex (Hym.: Pteromalidae) inferred from an internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequences. Insect Mol. Biol. 2: 225-237 Go to original source...
  8. CLARIDGE M.F. 1959: A contribution to the biology and taxonomy of the British species of the genus Eudecatoma Ashmead (= Decatoma Auctt. nec Spinola) (Hym., Eurytomidae). Trans. Soc. Br. Entomol. 13(9): 149-168
  9. CURTIS J. 1831: British Entomology. Vol. 8. Privately published, London, Plates 338-385 (with text)
  10. DALLA TORRE K.W. VON 1898: Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. V. Chalcididae et Proctotrupidae. G. Engelmann, Lepzig, 598 pp
  11. DALMAN J.W. 1820: FGrsGk till Uppstaellning af Insect-familjen Pteromalini, i synnerhet med afseen de pa de i Sverige funne Arter. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 41(1): 123-174, 177-182, tab VII-VIII [in Finnish]
  12. DAVATCHI A. 1956: Sur quelques insectes nuisibles au pistachier en Iran. Rev. Pathol. Veget. Entomol. Agric. Fr. 35: 2-26
  13. DAVATCHI A. 1958: Etude biologique de la faune entomologique des Pistacia sauvages et cultives. Rev. Pathol. Veget. Entomol. Agric. Fr. 37: 3-166
  14. DE STEFANI PEREZ T. 1908: L'insetto dei Frutti del Pistacchio e Modo di Limitarne i Danni. Sciarrino, Palermo, 61 pp
  15. DEMESURE B. & MUSCH J. 2001: L'evolution de la foret francaise apres la derniere glaciation: L'apport de la palynologie, l'archeologie et de la biologie moleculaire. In Le Perchec S., Guy P. & Fraval A. (eds): Agriculture et Diversite des Plantes. Dossier de l'Environnement 21. INRA, Paris, pp. 23-28
  16. ERDOS J. 1952: Observationes systematicae supra familiam Eurytomidarum. Folia Entomol. Hungar. 5: 109-128
  17. FELSENSTEIN J. 1985: Confidence limit on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783-791 Go to original source...
  18. FERRIERE C. 1968: Notes sur quelques Chalcidiens nouveaux ou peu connus (Hym.). Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 40: 240-248
  19. FONSCOLOMBE BOYER E.L.J.H. DE 1832: Monographia chalciditum galloprovinciae circa aquas degentum. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) 26: 273-307
  20. GOMEZ J.F., HERNANDEZ NIEVES M., GARRIDO TORRES A.M., ASKEW R.R. & NIEVES-ALDREY J.-L. 2006: Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) asociados con agallas de cinipidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) en la Comunidad de Madrid. Graellsia (Suppl.) 62: 293-331 Go to original source...
  21. GRAHAM M.W.R. DE V. 1988: The remains of Nees von Esenbeck's collection of Hymenoptera in the University Museum, Oxford. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 124: 19-36
  22. GRAHAM M.W.R. DE V. 1992: Hymenoptera collections of Boyer de Fonscolombe, with an account of his work and a description of the natural features of his estate. J. Nat. Hist. 26: 1089-1111 Go to original source...
  23. GRISSELL E.E. & PRINSLOO G.L. 2001: Seed-feeding species of Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) associated with Anacardiaceae. J. Hymenopt. Res. 10: 271-279
  24. HALL T. 2005: BioEdit 7.0.5, a biological sequence alignment editor written for Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP.
  25. HEDQVIST K.J. 1962: Eine neue Eudecatoma-Art von Mallorca (Hym. Chalc., Eurytomidae). Entomol. Tidskr. 83: 212-214
  26. KIMURA M. 1980: A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitution through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Evol. 16: 111-120 Go to original source...
  27. KREMER A. & PETIT R. 2001: L'epopee des chenes europeens. In Le Perchec S., Guy P. & Fraval A. (eds): Agriculture et Diversite des Plantes. Dossier de l'Environnement 21. INRA, Paris, pp. 133-138.
  28. KUMAR S., TAMURA K. & NEI M. 2004: MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings Bioinform. 5: 150-163 Go to original source...
  29. LOTFALIZADEH H., DELVARE G. & RASPLUS J.-Y. 2007: Eurytoma caninae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), a common species previously overlooked with E. rosae. Zootaxa 1640: 55-68
  30. LUNT D.H., ZHANG D.-X., SZYMURA J.M. & HEWITT G.M. 1996: The insect cytochrome oxidase I gene: Evolutionary patterns and conserved primers for phylogenetic studies. Insect Mol. Biol. 5: 153-165 Go to original source...
  31. MANOS P.S., DOYLE J.J. & NIXON K.C. 1999: Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation in Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae). Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 12: 333-349 Go to original source...
  32. MAYR G. 1905: Hymenopterologische miszellen. IV. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 1905: 529-575
  33. MOURIKIS P.A., TSOURGIANNI A. & CHITZANIDIS A. 1998: Pistachio nut insect pests and means of control in Greece. In Ferguson L. & Kester D. (eds): Proceedings of the II International Symposium of Pistachios and Almonds (ISHS). Acta Hortic. 470: 604-611
  34. NEES AB ESENBECK C.G. 1834: Hymenopterorum Ichneumonibus affinium Monographiae, genera Europaea et species illustrantes. Vol. 2. J.G. Cotta, Stuttgart, 448 pp
  35. NIEVES-ALDREY J.L. 1983: Sobre las especies de Sycophila Walker, asociadas con agallas de cinipidos en la Peninsula Iberica, con descripcion de una nueva especie (Hym.: Eurytomidae). Eos 59: 179-191
  36. NIKOL'SKAYA M.N. 1935: [Pistacia seed-eating chalcidids and their parasites (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae)]. Plant Prot. (Leningrad ) 1935: 81-87 [in Russian]
  37. NOYES J.S. 2002: Catalogue of the Chalcidoidea of the World. CD-Rom. Expert Center for Taxonomic Information, Amsterdam
  38. PARFITT D.E. & BADENES M.L. 1997: Phylogeny of the genus Pistacia as determined from analysis of the chloroplast genome. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 7987-7982 Go to original source...
  39. PUJADE-VILLAR J. 1993: Sobre les especies de Sycophila Walker, 1871, relacionades amb cinipo-cecidis recollectas sobre Quercus i Rosa a Catalunya (Hym.: Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae). Bull. Inst. Catal. Hist. Nat. 61: 69-79
  40. RONDANI C. 1872: Sopra alcuni vesparii parassiti. Note. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 4: 201-208
  41. SIMON C., FRATI F., BECKENBACH A., CRESPI B., LIU H. & FLOOK P.L. 1994: Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87: 651-701 Go to original source...
  42. SWEDERUS N.S. 1795: Beskrifning pa et nytt genus Pteromalus ibland Insecterna, haerande til Hymenoptera. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 16: 201-205, 216-222 [in Swedish]
  43. SWOFFORD D.L. 2001: PAUP. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony and other methods. Version 4.0 beta version. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA
  44. THOMPSON J.D., GIBSON T.J., PLEWNIAK F., JEANMOUNGIN F. & HIGGINS D.G. 1997: The Clustal-X-Windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequences alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl. Acids Res. 25: 4876-4882 Go to original source...
  45. THOMSON C.G. 1876: Skandinaviens Hymenoptera. Vol. 4. Lund, 192 pp
  46. TRAVESET A. 1993: Deceptive fruits reduce seed predation by insects in Pistacia terebinthus L. (Anacardiaceae). Evol. Ecol. 7: 357-361 Go to original source...
  47. VERDU M. & GARCIA-FAYOS P. 2002: Reproductive ecology of Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae): an evolutionary anachronism in the mediterranean shrubland. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75: 57-65 Go to original source...
  48. WALKER F. 1832: Monographia Chalciditum. Entomol. Mag. 1: 12-29
  49. WALKER F. 1834: Monographia Chalciditum. Entomol. Mag. 2: 148-179
  50. WALKER F. 1836: Monographia Chalciditum. Entomol. Mag. 4: 9-26
  51. ZEROVA M.D. 1995: [The Parasitic Hymenoptera Subfamilies Eurytominae and Eudecatominae (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) of the Palearctic.] Naukova Dumka Publishers, Kiev, 457 pp. [in Russian]