EJE, vol. 109 (2012), issue 4

Invertebrates in urban areas: A review

Elizabeth L. JONES, Simon R. LEATHER

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 463-478, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.060

As urbanisation is set to continue, understanding the impact on wildlife becomes increasingly important if we are to be able to conserve biodiversity. As an excellent group of bioindicators, invertebrates can allow us to understand some of the forces in urban areas which impact upon biodiversity and wildlife populations. This paper discusses some of the trends in the abundance, diversity and richness of invertebrates related to urbanisation and the specific urban environmental and traffic factors which may be at play.

Genomic alterations recorded in two species of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the Upper Jurassic limestone area of the Ojców National Park in Poland attributable to natural and anthropogenic factors


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 479-490, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.061

The Ojców National Park is situated in southern Poland in an area of Jurassic limestone, which determines the hydrochemistry of the water in the River Prądnik. The geochemical index of the sediment in the River Prądnik indicated it is moderately polluted with Pb and Zn, and heavily polluted with Cd compared to unpolluted sediment. The effect of natural and anthropogenic sources on the sediment in the River Prądnik and in appearing of structural and functional alterations in the salivary gland chromosomes of two species of Chironomidae, Micropsectra pallidula and Polypedilum convictum, was investigated. Two types of chromosomal rearrangements...

Respiratory metabolism of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 491-502, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.062

The respiratory metabolism of different polyphenic forms of the pea aphid, including wingless and winged asexual females (virginoparae), sexual females (oviparae) and winged or wingless adult males, was investigated using a micro-respirographic method. The records revealed sub-nanoliter amounts per min of O2 consumption or CO2 output. Respiratory metabolism of individuals was monitored for 3 to7 h after removal of the aphid from the food plant. Most of the recordings were for relatively large (3.5 mg), wingless asexual females (virginoparae). These aphids exhibited a continuous and very regular respiratory gas exchange (example:...

Survival and developmental characteristics of the predatory bug Orius similis (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) fed on Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) at three constant temperatures

Shi-Chang ZHANG, Fen ZHU, Xia-Lin ZHENG, Chao-Liang LEI, Xing-Miao ZHOU

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 503-508, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.063

Developmental characteristics of the predatory bug Orius similis fed on Tetranychus cinnabarinus were investigated at three constant temperatures (25, 28, and 31°C) under laboratory conditions (75±5% relative humidity and a 14L : 10D photoperiod). The survival of nymphs was highest at 28°C (75.57%) and at this temperature female adults O. similis had the longest oviposition period (21.1 d), the greatest fecundity (40.3 eggs) and the highest potential intrinsic rate of increase (rm: 0.108 d-1). These results suggest that O. similis can maintain greater population densities at 28°C than at the...

A novel association between Aphaenogaster subterranea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the nymphs of Reptalus panzeri (Hemiptera: Cixiidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 509-515, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.064

The nymphs of the cixiid planthopper, Reptalus panzeri (Löw, 1883), were found cohabiting with the myrmicine ant Aphaenogaster subterranea (Latreille, 1798) in a sub-Mediterranean oak forest in mid-western Hungary. Except for a few cases, nymphs were recorded only in the nests of A. subterranea, or were recorded with foragers of this ant from neighbouring colonies. Adult planthoppers were also found in nests of A. subterranea in the emergence period. Neither field nor laboratory studies revealed direct or unambiguous interactions between this ant and the planthopper nymphs that would indicate a trophobiotic relationship,...

Abundance and host associations of parasitoids attacking frugivorous drosophilids on Iriomote-jima, a subtropical island of Japan

Biljana NOVKOVIĆ, Ayako OIKAWA, Yusuke MURATA, Hideyuki MITSUI, Masahito T. KIMURA

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 517-526, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.065

To understand the factors governing the diversity, abundance and host associations of parasitoids attacking frugivorous drosophilid flies on Iriomote-jima, a subtropical island of Japan, we monitored parasitism on several occasions over the period 2003-2009. Fifteen drosophilid and 12 parasitoid species were recorded. Three species of Drosophila, D. bipectinata, D. albomicans and D. takahashii, bred abundantly in banana baits, though their abundance varied between years and seasons. Frequent parasitoid species were Asobara japonica, A. pleuralis (Braconidae), Leptopilina ryukyuensis and L. pacifica...

Inhabiting warm microhabitats and risk-spreading as strategies for survival of a phytophagous insect living in common pastures in the Pyrenees


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 527-534, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.066

The breakdown of the transhumant grazing system in the Spanish Pyrenees has led to a severe decline in the area of pastures. However, in the high mountain zone there are still large areas of species-rich grasslands. The aim of this study was to assess the oviposition preferences of the shrub-feeding Blue-spot hairstreak, Satyrium spini (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), in montane common pastures in the Spanish Pyrenees and recommend a way of managing these grasslands that favours this species. Our study showed that females of S.spini laid their eggs on Dwarf buckthorn (Rhamnus pumila Turra) and Alpine buckthorn (R. alpina...

The effect of disturbance caused by rivers flooding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 535-541, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.067

We studied the effect of flooding on a carabid community inhabiting grassland in a large river valley (W Poland). We used pitfall-traps to catch beetles from April to November 1999-2001. Some of the samples collected were preceded by floods during the collecting period, which enabled us to evaluate the effects of flooding on species composition and abundance. We collected 17,722 individuals belonging to 108 species. The number of species and individuals per sample differed between plots and showed a nonlinear decrease over time, from spring to autumn. Carabids were more abundant in samples collected after floods than in the control samples. In contrast,...

Habitat use governs distribution patterns of saprophagous (litter-transforming) macroarthropods - a case study of British woodlice (Isopoda: Oniscidea)

Bethan V. PURSE, Steve J. GREGORY, Paul HARDING, Helen E. ROY

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 543-552, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.068

Despite the importance of saprophagous macroarthropods as key facilitators of plant litter decomposition within ecosystems and their likely sensitivity to global climate change and land-use change, a lack of ecological data has precluded attempts to explain their distribution patterns in terms of traits. Using an extensive set of large-scale and long-term biological records, the distribution patterns of 33 woodlice (Crustacea: Oniscidea) species in Britain were characterised by their range size (area of occupancy) and aggregation (degree to which occupied squares are clustered across the range). Body size and seven ecological traits were examined as...

Vertical stratification and microhabitat selection by the Great Capricorn Beetle (Cerambyx cerdo) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in open-grown, veteran oaks


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 553-559, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.069

The great capricorn beetle or Cerambyx longicorn (Cerambyx cerdo, Linnaeus, 1758) is an internationally protected umbrella species representing the highly diverse and endangered fauna associated with senescent oaks. For the conservation and monitoring of populations of C. cerdo it is important to have a good knowledge of its microhabitat requirements. We investigated determinants and patterns of C. cerdo distribution within individual old, open-grown oaks. Trees inhabited by this species were climbed, and the number of exit holes and environmental variables recorded at two sites in the Czech Republic. Distribution of exit holes...

Dispersal of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) after augmentative releases in citrus orchards

Lucia ZAPPALÀ, Orlando CAMPOLO, Saverio Bruno GRANDE, Francesco SARACENO, Antonio BIONDI, Gaetano SISCARO, Vincenzo PALMERI

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 561-568, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.070

The efficacy of natural enemies in controlling pests under field conditions is largely correlated with their capacity to spread within infested crops. In this study the spatial dispersal of the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was evaluated in the field after augmentative releases. The experiment was conducted in 2007 in six 1-ha plots in a Sicilian citrus orchard under integrated pest management. A total of 180,000 A. melinus adults was released in each of three plots and the other plots were left as untreated control. The flight range of the parasitoid was evaluated, for 35 days after...

An improved lure for trapping the bark beetle Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

Shou-An XIE, Shu-Jie LV

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 569-577, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.071

The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus armandi, is a native pest restricted to forests in the Qinling Mountains in China. There was an outbreak of this species there that affected over 0.36 million hectares of pine forest. We hypothesized that there are differences between the numbers of beetles captured by traps baited with various combinations of candidate semiochemicals extracted from the hindguts of D. armandi. In order to determine whether a better operational lure could be developed for D. armandi, we analyzed the volatiles in extracts of the hindgut of D. armandi and tested various combinations of candidate semiochemicals....

Variations in the ultrastructure of the flight muscles of the polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

Cheng-Ji JIANG, Bao-Chang ZHANG, Wen-Feng CHEN, Qing-Wen ZHANG, Zhang-Wu ZHAO, Chun-Ju AN, Jie-Ping LI

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 579-586, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.072

Although there is a considerable amount of information on the ecology, genetics and physiology of life-history traits there is little information on the morphological variations associated with flight ability within species. In this paper, the morphology and ultrastructure of certain organelles in the flight muscles of Gryllus firmus are recorded using transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the flight muscles of 7-day-old female adults reveals that the ratio of thick to thin filaments is 1 : 3. Each thick filament is surrounded by 6 thin filaments in a hexagonal arrangement. The length of the sarcomere of each myofibril is significantly...

Larval morphology of Scydmaenus tarsatus and S. hellwigii, with notes on feeding behaviour and a review of the bibliography on the preimaginal stages of ant-like stone beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae)


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 587-601, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.073

Morphology of mature larvae of two Central European species of Scydmaenus Latreille is described and illustrated: S. (s. str.) tarsatus Müller & Kunze and S. (Cholerus) hellwigii (Herbst). Inaccuracies in previous descriptions of S. tarsatus are discussed and the following combination of characters is defined as diagnostic for Scydmaenus: epicranial sutures reaching posteromedian margins of antennal insertions; presence of a single pair of stemmata and epicranial supraantennal pits; anterior row of subtriangular teeth on epipharynx; mandibles falciform and without mesal teeth; antennomere...

The plant bug genus Psallus (Heteropera: Miridae) in the Korean Peninsula with descriptions of three new species

Ram Keshari DUWAL, Tomohide YASUNAGA, Sunghoon JUNG, Seunghwan LEE

Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 603-632, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.074

There are twenty-six species of the genus Psallus Fieber, 1858 (Phylinae: Phylini) documented in the Korean Peninsula. Three new species are described: Psallus cheongtaensis sp. n., P. ernsti sp. n. and P. suwonanus sp. n., and four species are reported from Korea for the first time: Psallus cinnabarinus Kerzhner, 1979, P. flavescens Kerzhner, 1988, P. loginovae Kerzhner, 1988, and P. roseoguttatus Yasunaga & Vinokurov, 2000. The genitalic structures of females and males are described and figured for most treated species. A key is provided for identifying...

Is the Carboniferous †Adiphlebia lacoana really the "oldest beetle"? Critical reassessment and description of a new Permian beetle family


Eur. J. Entomol. 109 (4): 633-645, 2012 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2012.075

Béthoux recently identified the species †Adiphlebia lacoana Scudder from the Carboniferous of Mazon Creek, Ill., USA as the oldest beetle. The fossils bear coriaceous tegmina with pseudo-veins allegedly aligned with "rows of cells" as they occur in Permian beetles and extant Archostemata. The examination of four new specimens of †Adiphlebia lacoana from the same locality revealed that the "cells" are in fact clumps of clay inside a delicate meshwork, and no derived features shared with Coleoptera or Coleopterida (= Coleoptera + Strepsiptera) were found. Instead, †Adiphlebia lacoana bears veinal fusions...