Eur. J. Entomol. 105 (4): 673-680, 2008 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2008.091

Orthopteran communities in the conifer-broadleaved woodland zone of the Russian Far East

Thomas FARTMANN, Martin BEHRENS, Holger LORITZ*
University of Münster, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Department of Community Ecology, Robert-Koch-Str. 26,

We investigate orthopteran communities in the natural landscape of the Russian Far East and compare the habitat requirements of the species with those of the same or closely related species found in the largely agricultural landscape of central Europe. The study area is the 1,200 km2 Lazovsky State Nature Reserve (Primorsky region, southern Russian Far East) 200 km east of Vladivostok in the southern spurs of the Sikhote-Alin Mountains (134°E/43°N). The abundance of Orthoptera was recorded in August and September 2001 based on the number present in 20 randomly placed 1 m2 quadrates per site. For each plot (i) the number of species of Orthoptera, (ii) absolute species abundance and (iii) fifteen environmental parameters characterising habitat structure and microclimate were recorded. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used first to determine whether the Orthoptera occur in ecologically coherent groups, and second, to assess their association with habitat characteristics. In addition, the number of species and individuals in natural and semi-natural habitats were compared using a t test. A total of 899 individuals of 31 different species were captured, with numbers ranging between 2 and 13 species per plot. Species diversity was higher in semi-natural habitats than natural habitats. There was a similar but non-significant pattern in species density. Ordination analysis indicated four orthopteran communities, which were clearly separable along a moisture and vegetation density gradient. The natural sites in the woodland area of the Lazovsky Zapovednik are characterized by species-poor and low-density orthopteran assemblages compared to the semi-natural sites. But, the natural sites have a higher diversity of habitat specialists. Our findings corroborate the hypothesis that intermediate habitat disturbance levels support particularly species-rich animal communities at high densities. Under such regimes, orthopterans presumably mostly profit from the high diversity in plant species, which generates great structural and microclimatic heterogeneity.

Keywords: Orthoptera, cricket, grasshopper, community ecology, disturbance, grassland, woodland zone, Lazovsky Reserve, Russian Far East, habitat heterogeneity, habitat specifity, Palaearctic

Accepted: March 17, 2008; Published: October 24, 2008

Download citation

References

  1. BAUR B., BAUR H., ROESTI C. & ROESTI D. 2006: Die Heuschrecken der Schweiz. Haupt, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien, 351 pp
  2. BEHRENS M. & FARTMANN T. 2004: Die Heuschreckengemeinschaften isolierter Schieferkuppen der Medebacher Bucht (Suedwestfalen/Nordhessen). Tuexenia 24: 303-327
  3. BEY-BIENKO G.Y. & MISHCHENKO L.L. 1951a: Locusts and grasshoppers of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Vol. I. Keys to the Fauna of the U.S.S.R. 38: 1-400 [translated from Russian by "Israel Program for Scientific Translations", Jerusalem 1964]
  4. BEY-BIENKO G.Y. & MISHCHENKO L.L. 1951b: Locusts and grasshoppers of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Vol. II. Keys to the Fauna of the U.S.S.R. 40: 1-291 [translated from Russian by "Israel Program for Scientific Translations", Jerusalem 1964]
  5. BIRKS H.J.B. 2005: Mind the gap: how open were European primeval forests? Trends Ecol. Evol. 20: 154-156 Go to original source...
  6. CHOCHRJAKOW S.A. & SCHORIN W.P. 2002: Amphibien, Reptilien, VGgel und Saeugetiere des Lasowski Sapowednik (Russisch Fernost). Laso, pp. 84
  7. DENNIS P., YOUNG M.R. & GORDON I.J. 1998: Distribution and abundance of small insects and arachnids in relation to structural heterogeneity of grazed, indigenous grasslands. Ecol. Entomol. 23: 253-264 Go to original source...
  8. DETZEL P. 1998a: Phaneroptera falcata (Poda, 1761) - Gemeine Sichelschrecke. In Detzel P. (ed.): Die Heuschrecken BadenWuerttembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 213-217
  9. DETZEL P. 1998b: Ruspolia nitidula (Scopoli, 1786) - Grosse Schiefkopfschrecke. In Detzel P. (ed.): Die Heuschrecken Baden-Wuerttembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 236-241
  10. DETZEL P. 1998c: Parapleurus alliaceus (Germar, 1817) - Lauchschrecke. In Detzel P. (ed.): Die Heuschrecken BadenWuerttembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 385-390
  11. DETZEL P. 1998d: Oecanthus pellucens (Scopoli, 1763) - Weinhaehnchen. In Detzel P. (ed.): Die Heuschrecken BadenWuerttembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 314-319
  12. DI GIULIO M., EDWARDS J.P. & MEISTER E. 2001: Enhancing insect diversity in agricultural grasslands: the roles of management and landscape structure. J. Appl. Ecol. 38: 310-319 Go to original source...
  13. FARTMANN T. 1997: BiozGnologische Untersuchungen zur Heuschreckenfauna auf Magerrasen im Naturpark Maerkische Schweiz (Ostbrandenburg). In Mattes H. (ed.): Okologische Untersuchungen zur Heuschreckenfauna in Brandenburg und Westfalen. Arb. Inst. LandschaftsGkol. Westf. Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster 3: 1-62
  14. FARTMANN T. 2004: Die Schmetterlingsgemeinschaften der Halbtrockenrasen-Komplexe des Diemeltales. BiozGnologie von Tagfaltern und Widderchen in einer alten Hudelandschaft. Abh. Westf. Mus. Naturkde. 66: 1-256
  15. FARTMANN T. 2006: Welche Rolle spielen StGrungen fuer Tagfalter und Widderchen? In Fartmann T. & Hermann G. (eds): LarvalGkologie von Tagfaltern und Widderchen in Mitteleuropa. Abh. Westf. Mus. Naturk. 68: 259-270
  16. FARTMANN T. & MATTES H. 1997: Heuschreckenfauna und Gruenland - Bewirtschaftungsmassnahmen und Biotopmanagement. In Mattes H. (ed.): Okologische Untersuchungen zur Heuschreckenfauna in Brandenburg und Westfalen. Arb. Inst. LandschaftsGkol. Westf. Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster 3: 179-188
  17. FIELDING D.J. & BRUSVEN M.A. 1992: Food and habitat preferences of Melanoplus sanguinipes and Aulocara elliotti (Orthoptera, Acrididae) on disturbed rangeland in southern Idaho. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 783-788 Go to original source...
  18. FIELDING D.J. & BRUSVEN M.A. 1993a: Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition and ecological disturbance on Southern Idaho rangeland. Environ. Entomol. 22: 71-81 Go to original source...
  19. FIELDING D.J. & BRUSVEN M.A. 1993b: Spatial-analysis of grasshopper density and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 43: 31-47 Go to original source...
  20. FIELDING D.J. & BRUSVEN M.A. 1995: Ecological correlates between rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and plant communities of southern Idaho. Environ. Entomol. 24: 1432-1441 Go to original source...
  21. FINCK P., KLEIN M., RIEKEN U. & SCHRODER E. 1998: Schutz und FGrderung dynamischer Prozesse in der Landschaft. Schriftenr. Landschaftspfl. Natursch. 56: 1-424
  22. GARDINER T., HILL J. & CHESMORE D. 2005: Review of the methods frequently used to estimate the abundance of Orthoptera in grassland ecosystems. J. Insect Conserv. 9: 151-173 Go to original source...
  23. GEBEYEHU S. & SAMWAYS M.J. 2003: Responses of grasshopper assemblages to long-term grazing management in a semi-arid African savanna. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 95: 613-622 Go to original source...
  24. GOTTSCHALK E. 1996: Population vulnerability of the grey bush cricket Platycleis albopunctata (Goeze 1778) (Ensifera: Tettigoniidae). In Settele J., Margules C., Poschold P. & Henle K. (eds): Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 324-328
  25. GRIME J.P. 1973a: Control of species density in herbaceous vegetation. J. Environ. Manag. 1: 151-167
  26. GRIME J.P. 1973b: Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature 242: 344-347 Go to original source...
  27. HELLER K.-G., KORSUNOVSKAYA O., RAGGE D.R., VEDENINA V., WILLEMSE F., ZHANTIEV R.D., FRANTSEVICH L. 1998: Check-list of European Orthoptera. Articul. Beih. 7: 1-61
  28. INGRISCH S. 1979: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Temperatur und Feuchtigkeit auf die Embryogenese einiger mitteleuropaeischer Laubheuschrecken (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zool. Beitr. N. F. (Berlin) 25: 343-364
  29. INGRISCH S. 1980: Zur Feuchte-Praeferenz von Feldheuschrecken und ihren Larven (Insecta: Acrididae). Verh. Gesellsch. Okol. 8: 403-410
  30. JOERN A. 1982: Vegetation structure and microhabitat selection in grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Southwest. Nat. 27: 197-209 Go to original source...
  31. JOERN A. 2004: Variation in grasshopper (Acrididae) densities in response to fire frequency and bison grazing in tallgrass prairie. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1617-1625 Go to original source...
  32. JOERN A. 2005: Disturbance by fire frequency and bison grazing modulate grasshopper assemblages in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 86: 861-873 Go to original source...
  33. KEMP W.P. 1992a: Temporal variation in rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera, Acrididae) communities in the steppe region of Montana, USA. Can. Entomol. 124: 437-450 Go to original source...
  34. KEMP W.P. 1992b: Rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera, Acrididae) community structure - a working hypothesis. Environ. Entomol. 21: 461-470 Go to original source...
  35. KEMP W.P., HARVEY S.J. & O'NEILL K.M. 1990: Patterns of vegetation and grasshopper community composition. Oecologia 83: 299-308. Go to original source...
  36. KIECHLE J. 1998: Pteronemobius heydenii (Fischer, 1853) - Sumpfgrille. In Detzel P. (ed.): Die Heuschrecken BadenWuerttembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 307-313
  37. KRIVOLUTSKAYA G.O. 1997: Entomofauna of the Kuril Islands: Principal Features and Origin. 1st electronic ed. International Kuril Island Project, http://artedi.fish.washington.edu/ okhotskia/ikip/Results/publications/specialpubs.htm [27/11/ 2007]
  38. KRUESS A. & TSCHARNTKE T. 2002: Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and wasps. Conserv. Biol. 16: 1570-1580 Go to original source...
  39. LOCKWOOD J.A. & SERGEEV M.G. 2000: Comparative biogeography of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in North America and Siberia: Applications to the conservation of biodiversity. J. Insect. Conserv. 4: 161-172 Go to original source...
  40. MASAKI S. & OYAMA N. 1963: Photoperiodic control of growth and wing form in Nemobius yezoensis Shiraki. KontyC 31: 16-26
  41. MASAKI S. 1996: Geographical variation of life cycle in crickets (Ensifera: Grylloidea). Eur. J. Entomol. 93: 281-302
  42. MITCHELL F.J.G. 2005: How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data. J. Ecol. 93: 168-177 Go to original source...
  43. NEWELL J. 2004: The Russian Far East. A reference Guide for Conservation and Development. 2nd ed. Daniel & Daniel, McKinleyville, CA, 466 pp
  44. PALMER M.W. 1993: Putting things in even better order: the advantages of canonical correspondence analysis. Ecology 74: 2215-2230 Go to original source...
  45. RICHARDS O.W. & WALOFF N. 1954: Studies on the biology and population dynamics of British grasshoppers. Anti-Locust Bull. 17: 1-182
  46. SAMWAYS M.J. 1997: Conservation biology of Orthoptera. In Gangwere S.K., Muralirangan M.C. & Muralirangan M. (eds): The Bionomics of Grasshoppers, Katydids and their Kin. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 481-496
  47. SCHMIDT G.H. 1999: New records of Grylloidea from Africa and the Indian subcontinent (Insecta: Orthopteroidea: Ensifera). J. Entomol. Res. Soc. 1: 39-57
  48. SEMENCHENKO A. 2003: Kievka River Watershed. ed. Wild Salmon Center, http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/pops/ KievkaRiver.php [15/11/2007]
  49. SERGEEV M.G. 1992: Distribution patterns of Orthoptera in North and Central Asia. J. Orthopt. Res. 1: 14-24 Go to original source...
  50. SERGEEV M.G. 1997: Ecogeographical distribution of Orthoptera. In Gangwere S.K., Muralirangan M.C. & Muralirangan M. (eds): The Bionomics of Grasshoppers, Katydids and their Kin. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 129-145
  51. SERGEEV M.G. 1998: Conservation of orthopteran biological diversity relative to landscape change in temperate Eurasia. J. Insect Conserv. 2: 247-252 Go to original source...
  52. SPECHT S. 2004: Grasshopper Communities of Flood Plains in the Lazovsky Zapovednik (Primorsky Region, Russia). Diploma Thesis. Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Muenster, Germany
  53. STEBAEV I.V., MURAVJEVA V.M. & SERGEEV M.G. 1989: Ecological standards of Orthoptera in herbaceous biotopes in the Far East. Entomol. Rev. (Washington) 68(2): 1-10
  54. STORCH D., KONVICKA M., BENES J., MARTINKOVA J. & GASTON K.J. 2003: Distribution patterns in butterflies and birds of the Czech Republic: separating effects of habitat and geographical position. J. Biogeogr. 30: 1195-1205 Go to original source...
  55. STOROZHENKO S.J. 1986: Orthoptera (Saltatoria). In Ler P.A. (ed.): Keys of Insects of the Soviet Far East. Scientific Academy of the USSR, Leningrad, pp. 241-317 [in Russian]
  56. SZOVENYI G. 2002: Qualification of grassland habitats based on their Orthoptera assemblages in the KGszeg Mountains (W-Hungary). Entomol. Exp. Appl. 104: 159-163 Go to original source...
  57. THEUERKAUF J. & ROUYS S. 2006: Do Orthoptera need human land use in central Europe? The role of habitat patch size and linear corridors in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland. Biodiv. Cons. 15: 1497-1508 Go to original source...
  58. TER BRAAK C.J.F. & SMILAUER P. 2002: CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canocical Community Ordination (Version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca
  59. TORRUSIO S., CIGLIANO M.M. & DE WYSIECKI M.L. 2002: Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) and plant community relationships in the Argentine pampas. J. Biogeogr. 29: 221-229 Go to original source...
  60. UVAROV B. 1977: Grasshoppers and Locusts. A Handbook of General Acridology. Vol. 2: Behaviour, Ecology, Biogeography, Population Dynamics. Centre for Overseas Pest Research, London, 613 pp
  61. VENEVSKY S. & VENEVSKAIA I. 2005: Hierarchical systematic conservation planning at the national level: Identifying national biodiversity hotspots using abiotic factors in Russia. Biol. Cons. 124: 235-251 Go to original source...
  62. VAN WINGERDEN W.K.R.E., MUSTERS J.C.M. & MAASKAMP F.I.M. 1991a: The influence of temperature on the duration of egg development in West European grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Oecologia 87: 417-423 Go to original source...
  63. VAN WINGERDEN W.K.R.E., MUSTERS J.C.M., KLEUKERS R.M.J.C., BONGERS W. & VAN BIEZEN J.B. 1991b: The influence of cattle grazing intensity on grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Proc. Sect. Exp. Appl. Entomol. Netherlands Entomol. Soc. 2: 28-34
  64. WALLIS DE VRIES M.F. & RAEMAKERS I. 2001: Does extensive grazing benefit butterflies in coastal dunes? Restor. Ecol. 9: 179-188 Go to original source...
  65. WILLOTT S.J. & HASSALL M. 1998: Life-history responses of British grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to temperature change. Funct. Ecol. 12: 232-241 Go to original source...
  66. WINTERHOLLER M. & BIERWIRTH G. 2003: Sumpfgrille - Pteronemobius heydenii (Fischer, 1853). In Schlumprecht H. & Waeber G. (eds.): Heuschrecken in Bayern. Ulmer, Stuttgart, pp. 157-159
  67. YAN X.D. & SHUGART H.H. 2005: FAREAST: a forest gap model to simulate dynamics and patterns of eastern Eurasian forests. J. Biogeogr. 32: 1641-1658. Go to original source...