Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 81-87, 2007 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2007.013

Embryogenesis of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Morphological markers for staging of living embryos

Jan HAVELKA1, Vladimír LANDA Jr.2, Vladimír LANDA1
1 Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic ; e-mail: jhav@entu.cas.cz
2 Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083/270, 142 20 Praha 4 - Krč, Czech Republic

Determination of embryonic stages is an important prerequisite for the long-term cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of the predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. This paper describes the embryonic development of this insect based on light microscopy. Gall midge embryogenesis lasts, on average, 102 h at 17°C and 144 h at 15°C. Living embryos can be quickly separated into ten stages that are clearly defined by specific morphological markers. The necessity for selecting definite embryonic stages for cryobiological storage is discussed.

Keywords: Cecidomyiidae, Aphidoletes aphidimyza, biological control, aphids, insect embryogenesis, embryonic markers, cryopreservation of eggs, entomophagous insects

Received: November 15, 2005; Accepted: August 14, 2006; Revised: August 14, 2006; Published: January 3, 2007Show citation

ACS AIP APA ASA Harvard Chicago IEEE ISO690 MLA NLM Turabian Vancouver
HAVELKA, J., LANDA, V., & LANDA, V. (2007). Embryogenesis of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Morphological markers for staging of living embryos. Eur. J. Entomol.104(1), 81-87. doi: 10.14411/eje.2007.013.
Download citation

References

  1. ASYAKIN B.P. 1974: Aphidophagous insects and their use in aphid suppression on cucumbers in glasshouses. Ph.D. Thesis, Leningrad Agric. Inst., 211 pp. [in Russian]
  2. ASHBURNER M. 1989: Drosophila - A Laboratory Handbook. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY, pp. 139-298
  3. CAMPOS-ORTEGA J.A. & HARTENSTEIN V. 1985: The Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 227 pp
  4. HAVELKA J. 1980: Effect of temperature on the developmental rate of preimaginal stages of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Entomol. Exp. Appl. 27: 83-90 Go to original source...
  5. HAVELKA J. 1982: A predatory gall-midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) - a method of mass laboratory rearing, and use in the biological control of aphids on greenhouse plants. Proc. IOBC East Palaearctic Regional Section: Methods of Integrated Pest Management. Poznan, Poland, pp. 89-121 [in Russian]
  6. HAVELKA J. 1996: Storage of entomophagous insects: methods and use (a review). Proc. Symp. IOBC EPRS & WPRS: Ecological Problems of Plant Protection and Contemporary Agriculture. Bratislava, pp. 55-57
  7. HAVELKA J. & ZEMEK R. 1988: Intraspecific variability of aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) and its importance for biological control of aphids. J. Appl. Entomol. 105: 280-288 Go to original source...
  8. HAVELKA J. & ZEMEK R. 1999: Life table parameters and oviposition dynamics of various populations of the predacious gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 91: 481-484 Go to original source...
  9. HEACOX A.E., LEOPOLD R.A. & BRAMMER J.D. 1985: Survival of house fly embryos cooled in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Cryo-Letters 6: 305
  10. KAHLE W. 1908: Die Paedogenesis der Cecidomyiden. Zoologica (Stuttgart) 21: 1-80
  11. KOSTAL V. & HAVELKA J. 2001: Low temperature storage of larvae and synchronization of adult emergence in the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Cryobiology 42: 112-120 Go to original source...
  12. KULP D., FORTMANN M., HOMMES M. & PLATE H.P. 1989: Die raeuberische Gallmuecke Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) - Ein bedeutender Blattlauspraedator - Nachschlagewerk zur Systematik, Verbreitung, Biologie, Zucht und Anwendung. Mitt. Biol. Bund. Land Forstw. (Berlin) 250: 1-126
  13. LEOPOLD R.A. 1991: Cryopreservation of insect germplasm: Cells, tissues and organisms. In Lee R.E. & Denlinger D.L. (eds): Insects at Low Temperature. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 379-407
  14. LEOPOLD R.A. & ATKINSON P. 1999: Cryopreservation of sheep blow fly embryos, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Cryo-Letters 20: 37-44
  15. LEOPOLD R.A., WANG W.B., BERKEBILE D.R. & FREEMAN T.P. 2001: Cryopreservation of embryos of the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94: 695 Go to original source...
  16. LIU X.H. & MAZUR P. 2003: Effects of sugars on the kinetics of drying and on the survival of partially dehydrated larvae of Anopheles mosquitos. J. Insect Physiol. 49: 685-695 Go to original source...
  17. LIU X. H., MAZUR P., GAMLIEL E., COLE K.W. & LAUGHINGHOUSE A. 2001: Effects of beserazide, dechorionation time in hypochlorite, and alkane treatment on the permeability of Anopheles gambiae eggs to water and solutes. Cryobiology 43: 341-342
  18. LIU X.H., PAN H. & MAZUR P. 2003: Permeation and toxicity of ethylene glycol and methanol in larvae of Anopheles gambiae. J. Exp. Biol. 206: 2221 Go to original source...
  19. MARKKULA M. & TIITTANEN K. 1977: Use of the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) against aphids in glasshouse cultures. Proc. Symp. XV. Int. Congr. Entomol. Wash. D.C. USDA AS ARS-NE 85: 41-44
  20. MAZUR P. & COLE K.W. 1992: Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos. Science 258: 1932-1935 Go to original source...
  21. MAZUR P., SCHNEIDER U. & MAHOWALD A.P. 1992: Characteristics and kinetics of subzero chilling injury in Drosophila embryos. Cryobiology 29: 39-68 Go to original source...
  22. MAZUR P., COLE K.W., SCHREUDERS P.D. & MAHOWALD A.P. 1993: Contributions of cooling and warming rate and developmental stage to the survival of Drosophila embryos cooled to -205°C. Cryobiology 30: 45 Go to original source...
  23. MILES J.E. & BALE J.S. 1995a: Steps towards the cryopreservation of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Cryo-Letters 16: 329-338
  24. MILES J.E. & BALE J.S. 1995b: Analysis of chilling injury in the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Cryobiology 32: 436-443 Go to original source...
  25. MYERS S.P., LYNCH D.V., KNIPPLE D.C., LEIBO S.P. & STEPONKUS P. 1988: Low-temperature sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Cryobiology 25: 544-545 Go to original source...
  26. NUNAMAKER R.A. & LOCKWOOD J.A. 2001: Cryopreservation of embryos of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. Med. Entomol. 38: 55-58 Go to original source...
  27. POULSON D.F. 1950: Histogenesis, organogenesis, and differentiation in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. In Demerec M. (ed.): Biology of Drosophila. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 168-274
  28. RAJAMOHAN A., LEOPOLD R.A., WANG W.B., HARRIS M., MCCOMBS S.D., PEABODY N.C. & FISHER K. 2003: Cryopreservation of Mediterranean fruit fly embryos. Cryo-Letters 24: 125-132
  29. SONNENBLICK B.P. 1950: The early embryology of Drosophila melanogaster. In Demerec M. (ed.): Biology of Drosophila. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 62-167
  30. STEPONKUS P.L., MYERS S.P., LYNCH D.V., GARDNER L., BRONHTEYN V., LEIBO S.P., RALL W.F., PITT R.E., LIN T.T. & MACINTYRE R.J. 1990: Cryopreservation of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Nature 345: 170-172 Go to original source...
  31. VALENCIA M.D.P., MILLER L.H. & MAZUR P. 1996a: Permeability of intact and dechorionated eggs of the Anopheles mosquito to water vapour and liquid water: A comparison with Drosophila. Cryobiology 33: 142-148 Go to original source...
  32. VALENCIA M.D.P., MILLER L.H. & MAZUR P. 1996b: Permeabilization of eggs of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Cryobiology 33: 149-162 Go to original source...
  33. VAN DER STARRE-VAN DER MOLEN L.G. 1972: Embryology of Calliphora erythrocephala Meigen. 1. Morphology. Neth. J. Zool. 22: 119-182 Go to original source...
  34. WANG W.B., LEOPOLD R.A., NELSON D.R. & FREEMAN T.P. 2000: Cryopreservation of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) embryos. Cryobiology 41: 153-166 Go to original source...
  35. WIESHAUS E. & NUSSLEIN-VOLHARD C. 1986: Looking at embryos. In Roberts D.B. (ed.): Drosophila - A Practical Approach. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, pp. 199-227

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.