Eur. J. Entomol. 104 (1): 51-56, 2007 | DOI: 10.14411/eje.2007.008

Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites

Alois HONĚK1, Zdeňka MARTINKOVÁ1, Stano PEKÁR2
1 Research Institute of Crop Production, Drnovská 507, CZ 16106 Praha 6 - Ruzyně, Czech Republic; e-mail: honek@vurv.cz
2 Institute of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ 61137 Brno, Czech Republic

Adults of some coccinellid species overwinter in aggregations consisting of many individuals. They may clump because adults are attracted to particular environmental stimuli and/or of an innate tendency to join conspecific individuals. Aggregation behaviour was studied in Coccinella septempunctata L., which forms small clumps, and Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Schneider) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), which form large clumps. Adults were recorded at five hilltop hibernacula (400-1500 m altitude) in central Europe (50-51°N, 14-16°E) for periods up to 27 years. The hibernacula occur in areas sparsely covered with isolated grass tussocks or completely with stones. Numbers of adults recorded under each of 300-900 stones or among the stems of the grass tussocks were counted every year at each hibernaculum. The degree of aggregation was determined using Taylor's power law. The coccinellid distributions became more aggregated and the size of the aggregations increased as their abundance increased, less in C. septempunctata than in the other two species. Aggregations formed even in the absence of prominent structures, which may attract immigrants, and even when unoccupied stones or tussocks suitable for overwintering were available. Aggregations may be established and their size limited by the strength of the intrinsic preference to join conspecifics. The supposed advantage of aggregated overwintering must be greater than the risk associated with the easy spread of diseases.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Coccinella septempunctata, Ceratomegilla undecimnotata, Hippodamia variegata, overwintering, distribution, hibernaculum

Received: May 11, 2006; Accepted: September 7, 2006; Revised: September 7, 2006; Published: January 3, 2007Show citation

ACS AIP APA ASA Harvard Chicago IEEE ISO690 MLA NLM Turabian Vancouver
HONĚK, A., MARTINKOVÁ, Z., & PEKÁR, S. (2007). Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites. Eur. J. Entomol.104(1), 51-56. doi: 10.14411/eje.2007.008.
Download citation

References

  1. AL ABASSI S., BIRKETT M.A., PETTERSSON J., PICKETT J.A. & WOODCOCK C.M. 1998: Ladybird beetle odour identified and found to be responsible for attraction between adults. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 54: 876-879 Go to original source...
  2. BARRON A. & WILSON K. 1998: Overwintering survival in the seven spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 95: 639-642
  3. BAZZOCCHI G.G., LANZONI A., ACCINELLI G. & BURGIO G. 2004: Overwintering, phenology and fecundity of Harmonia axyridis in comparison with native coccinellid species in Italy. BioControl 49: 245-260 Go to original source...
  4. BELLOWS T.S. & HASSELL M.P. 1999: Theories and mechanisms of natural population regulation. In Bellows T.S. & Fisher T.V. (eds): Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 17-44
  5. BENTON A.H. & CRUMP A.J. 1979: Observations on aggregation and overwintering in the coccinellid beetle Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer). J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 87: 154-159
  6. CERYNGIER P. 2000: Overwintering of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) at different altitudes in the Karkonosze Mts, SW Poland. Eur. J. Entomol. 97: 323-328 Go to original source...
  7. COPP N.H. 1983: Temperature-dependent behaviours and cluster formation by aggregating ladybird beetles. Anim. Behav. 31: 424-430 Go to original source...
  8. CRAWLEY M.J. 2002: Statistical Computing. An Introduction to Data Analysis Using S-Plus. J. Wiley, Chichester, 756 pp
  9. HAGEN K.S. 1962: Biology and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 7: 289-326 Go to original source...
  10. HAMILTON R.A., DOGAN E.B., SCHAALJE G.B. & BOOTH G.M. 1999: Olfactory response of the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to prey related odors, including a scanning electron microscopy study of the antennal sensila. Env. Entomol. 28: 812-822 Go to original source...
  11. HEMPTINNE J.L., LOGNAY G. & DIXON A.F.G. 1998: Mate recognition in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata: role of chemical and behavioural cues. J. Insect Physiol. 44: 1163-1171 Go to original source...
  12. HODEK I. 1960: Hibernation-bionomics in Coccinellidae. Cas. Cs. Spol. Entomol. 57: 1-20
  13. HODEK I. 1996: Dormancy. In Hodek I. & Honek A.: Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 239-318
  14. HONEK A. 1982: The distribution of overwintered Coccinella septempunctata L. (Col., Coccinellidae) adults in agricultural crops. Z. Angew. Entomol. 94: 311-319 Go to original source...
  15. HONEK A. 1989: Overwintering and annual changes of abundance of Coccinella septempunctata in Czechoslovakia (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 86: 179-192
  16. HONEK A. 1990: Seasonal changes in flight activity of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 87: 336-341
  17. HONEK A. 1997: Factors determining winter survival in Coccinella septempunctata (Col.: Coccinellidae). Entomophaga 42: 119-124 Go to original source...
  18. HONEK A. & MARTINKOVA Z. 2005: Long term changes in abundance of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Czech Republic. Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 443-448 Go to original source...
  19. HONEK A. & REJMANEK M. 1982: The communities of adult aphidophagous Coccinellidae (Coleoptera): a multivariate analysis. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Appl. 3: 95-104
  20. IPERTI G. 1966: Protection of coccinellids against mycosis. In Hodek I. (ed.): Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 189-190
  21. KATSOYANNOS P., KONTODIMAS D.C. & STATHAS G. 2005: Summer diapause and winter quiescence of Hippodamia (Semiadalia) undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in central Greece. Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 453-457 Go to original source...
  22. LIPA J.J., PRUSZYNSKI S. & BARTKOWSKI J. 1975: The parasites and survival of the lady bird beetles (Coccinellidae) during winter. Acta Parasitol. Pol. 23: 453-461
  23. LUDWIG J.A. & REYNOLDS J.F. 1988: Statistical Ecology. A Primer on Methods and Computing. J. Wiley, New York, 337 pp
  24. MOORING M.S. & HARTL B.L. 1992: Animal grouping for protection from parasites - selfish herd and encounter-dilution effects. Behaviour 123: 173-193 Go to original source...
  25. NAKAMUTA K. 1984: Visual orientation of a ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), towards its prey. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 19: 82-86 Go to original source...
  26. NALEPA C.A. & KIDD K.A. & AHLSTROM K.R. 1996: Biology of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in winter aggregations. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 89: 681-685 Go to original source...
  27. NEDVED O., CERYNGIER P., HODKOVA M. & HODEK I. 2001: Flight potential and oxygen uptake during early dormancy in Coccinella septempunctata. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 99: 371-380 Go to original source...
  28. NINKOVIC V., AL ABBASI S. & PETTERSSON J. 2001: The influence of aphid-induced plant volatiles on ladybird searching behavior. Biol. Contr. 21: 191-195 Go to original source...
  29. OBATA S. 1986: Determination of hibernation site in the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Kontyu 54: 218-223
  30. R DEVELOPMENT CORE TEAM 2004: R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna, Austria. Available at http://www.R-project.org
  31. RICCI C., PONTI L. & PIRES A. 2005: Migratory flight and prediapause feeding of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera) adults in agricultural and mountain ecosystems of Central Italy. Eur. J. Entomol. 102: 531-538. Go to original source...
  32. RUzICKA Z. 1997: Recognition of oviposition-deterring allomones by aphidophagous predators (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 94: 431-434
  33. SCHALLER M. & NENTWIG W. 2000: Olfactory orientation of the seven-spot ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Attraction of adults to plants and conspecific females. Eur. J. Entomol. 97: 155-159 Go to original source...
  34. SHONOUDA M.L. 1999: Aphid aqueous-extract as a source of host searching kairomones for the aphidophagous predator Coccinella septempunctata L. (Col., Coccinellidae). J. Pest. Sci. 72: 126-128
  35. SILLEN-TULLBERG B. & LEIMAR O. 1988: The evolution of gregariousness in distastesful insects as a defense against predators. Am. Nat. 132: 723-734 Go to original source...
  36. TAYLOR L.R. 1961: Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189: 732-735 Go to original source...
  37. TIMOFEEFF-RESSOVSKY N.V. 1940: Zur Analyse des Polymorphismus bei Adalia bipunctata L. Biol. Zentralbl. 60: 130-137
  38. TURCHIN P. & KAREIVA P. 1989: Aggregation in Aphis varians: An effective strategy for reducing predation risk. Ecology 70: 1008-1016 Go to original source...
  39. YASUDA H., TAKAGI T. & KOGI K. 2000: Effects of conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks on the oviposition behaviour of the predatory ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 97: 551-553 Go to original source...

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.